Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia Growth Alterations by Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

  • Abraham Octavio RODRÍGUEZ-DE LA FUENTE Department of Exact Sciences and Human Development, Biological Sciences School, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Sán Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México
  • Ricardo GOMEZ-FLORES Department of Immunology and Virology, Biological Sciences School, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Sán Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México
  • José Antonio Antoni HEREDIA-ROJAS Department of Exact Sciences and Human Development, Biological Sciences School, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Sán Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México
  • Edna Marbella GARCÍA-MUÑOZ Northeast Biomedical Research Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
  • Javier VARGAS-VILLARREAL Northeast Biomedical Research Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
  • Magda Elizabeth HERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA Northeast Biomedical Research Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
  • Francisco GONZÁLEZ-SALAZAR Northeast Biomedical Research Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
  • Jesús Norberto GARZA-GONZÁLEZ Northeast Biomedical Research Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México
  • Michaela BELTCHEVA Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Omar Heredia-Rodriguez, Dr. Department of Exact Sciences and Human Development, Biological Sciences School, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Sán Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México
Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Magnetic fields, Parasite growth

Abstract

Background: There is an increasing interest in using physical factors such as magnetic fields as antimicrobial strategy, with variable results. The current study was aimed to evaluate the influence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on the axenically-cultured parasite protozoans Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia growth. Methods: Bioassays were developed using T. vaginalis, GT-13 and G. lamblia IMSS-0989 strains cultured at 37 ºC in TYI-S-33 medium. The following treatment regimens and controls were considered: (a) cells exposed to ELF-EMFs, (b) untreated cells, (c) cells treated with Metronidazole, used as positive controls, and (d) cells co-exposed to ELF-EMFs and Metronidazole. When cultures reached the end of logarithmic phase, they were exposed to ELF-EMFs for 72 h, in a standardized magnetic field exposure facility. For determining cytotoxic effects, trophozoite density was blindly evaluated in a Neubauer chamber. Results: A significant decrease in trophozoite growth was observed for T. vaginalis, in magnetic field-treated cultures. On the other hand, cultures co-exposed to ELF-EMFs and Metronidazole showed no significant differences when compared with cultures treated with Metronidazole alone. On the contrary, an increased trophozoite density was observed in G. lamblia cultures after exposure to magnetic fields. An absence of a synergistic or antagonistic effect was observed. Conclusion: ELF-EMFs induced T. vaginalis and G. lamblia growth alterations, indicating a potential effect in cell cycle progression.

References

1. Rodríguez-De la Fuente AO, Heredia-Rojas JA, Mata-Cárdenas BD, et al. Enta-moeba invadens: Influence of 60 Hz magnetic fields on growth and differentiation. Exp Parasitol. 2008; 119: 202-206.
2. Heredia-Rojas JA, Torres-Flores AC, Ro-dríguez-De la Fuente AO, et al. Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis: Tropho-zoite growth inhibition by metronidazole electro-transferred water. Exp Parasitol. 2011; 127: 80-83.
3. Amaroli A, Trielli F, Bianco B, Giordano S, Moggia E, Corrado MU. Effects of a 50Hz magnetic field on Dictyostelium discoide-um (Protista). Bioelectromagnetics. 2006; 27: 528-534.
4. Aksoy U, Sahin S, Ozkoc S, Ergor G. The effect of electromagnetic waves on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica and Enta-moeba dispar. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26: 1388-1390.
5. Castro-Garza J, Anaya-Velázquez F, Said-Fernández S, González-Garza MT. Com-parable growth of a Trichomonas vaginalis strain in PEHPS and TYI-S-33 media. Arch Med Res. 1996; 27: 567-569.
6. Heredia-Rojas JA, Rodríguez-De la Fuente AO, Velasco-Campos MR, Leal-Garza CH, Rodríguez-Flores LE, De la Fuente-Cortéz B. Cytological effects of 60 Hz magnetic fields on human lymphocytes in vitro: sister chromatid exchanges, cell ki-netics and mitotic rate. Bioelectromagnet-ics. 2001; 22: 145-149.
7. Dihel LE, Smith-Sonnenorn J, Middaugh CR. Effects of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the cell division rate and plasma membrane of Paramecium tetraurelia. Bioelectromagnetics. 1985; 6: 61-71.
8. Zimmermann U. Electric breakdown, elec-tropermeabilization and electrofusion. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2005; 105: 175-256.
9. Heredia Rojas JA, Rodríguez-de la Fuente AO, Alcocer-González JM, et al. Effect of 60 Hz magnetic fields on the activation of hsp70 promoter in cultured INER-37 and RMA E7 cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2010; 46: 758-763.
10. Heredia-Rojas JA, Caballero-Hernández DE, Rodríguez-De la Fuente AO, Ramos-Alfano G, Rodríguez-Flores LE. Lack of alterations on meiotic chromosomes and morphological characteristics of male germ cells in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2004; 25: 63-68.
Published
2019-12-31
How to Cite
1.
RODRÍGUEZ-DE LA FUENTE AO, GOMEZ-FLORES R, HEREDIA-ROJAS JA, GARCÍA-MUÑOZ EM, VARGAS-VILLARREAL J, HERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA ME, GONZÁLEZ-SALAZAR F, GARZA-GONZÁLEZ JN, BELTCHEVA M, Heredia-Rodriguez O. Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia Growth Alterations by Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Iran J Parasitol. 14(4):652-656.
Section
Short Communication(s)