Anti-Leishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Epigallo-catechin 3-O-Gallate on Leishmania tropica: Apoptosis and Gene Expression Profiling

  • Morteza SADUQI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Iraj SHARIFI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Zahra BABAEI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Alireza KEYHANI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mahshid MOSTAFAVI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Maryam HAKIMI PARIZI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mahdiyeh GHASEMIAN Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mehdi BAMOROVAT Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Fatemeh SHARIFI Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza AFLATOONIAN Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Fariba SHARIFIFAR Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Department of Pharmacognosy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Pooya GHASEMI NEJAD Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Ahmad KHOSRAVI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Ehsan SALARKIA Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Rajender S. VARMA Regional Center of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
Keywords: Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, Leishmania tropica, Immunomodulatory role, Apoptosis, Gene expression

Abstract

Background: Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), are the first-line treatment against leishmaniasis, but at present, they have basically lost their efficacy. This study was aimed to explore epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), alone or in combination with MA against Leishmania tropica stages. Methods: All experiments were carried out in triplicate using colorimetric assay, macrophage model, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. This experimental study was carried out in 2017 in Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Results: Promastigotes and amastigotes were more susceptible to EGCG than MA alone, but the effect was more profound when used in combination. EGCG exhibited high antioxidant level with a remarkable potential to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, the results showed that the level of gene expression pertaining to Th-1 was significantly up-regulated (P<0.001). Conclusion: EGCG demonstrated a potent anti-leishmanial effect alone and more enhanced lethal activity in combination. The principal mode of action entails the stimulation of a synergistic response and up-regulation of the immunomodulatory role towards Th-1 response against L. tropica.

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Published
2019-12-29
How to Cite
1.
SADUQI M, SHARIFI I, BABAEI Z, KEYHANI A, MOSTAFAVI M, HAKIMI PARIZI M, GHASEMIAN M, BAMOROVAT M, SHARIFI F, AFLATOONIAN MR, SHARIFIFAR F, GHASEMI NEJAD P, KHOSRAVI A, SALARKIA E, S. VARMA R. Anti-Leishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Epigallo-catechin 3-O-Gallate on Leishmania tropica: Apoptosis and Gene Expression Profiling. Iran J Parasitol. 14(4):521-533.
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Original Article(s)