Clinical Features of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Major Focus, Southeastern Iran, 1994-2014

  • Ahmad KHOSRAVI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Iraj SHARIFI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Alireza FEKRI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Alireza KERMANIZADEH Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mehdi BAMOROVAT Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mahshid MOSTAFAVI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza AFLATOONIAN Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
  • Alireza KEYHANI Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Keywords: Clinical features, Cutaneous leismaniasis, Leishmania tropica, Iran

Abstract

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is associated with a broad and complex clinical spectrum of diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical features and identification of the causative agents of CL in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, southeast Iran.Methods: This study was performed randomly as a descriptive cross-sectional survey to evaluate 2000 CL patients by active and passive case-detection approaches in Kerman Province from 1994 to 2014. The ACL patients were confirmed by direct smear and 600 cases by one or a combination of intrinsic methods.Results: Children aged <10 yr old were the most infected patients (P<0.001). The majority of the CL lesions were located in hands (46.3%), face (34.1%), legs (14.3%), and other parts of the body (5.3%). The mean number of lesions was 1.5 and most of the patients had single lesion (65%).Typical clinical lesions included papule (36.8%), followed by ulcerated nodule (20.7%), plaque (18.4%), and ulcerated plaque (18.5%). While among atypical clinical features, leishmaniasis recidivans (LR) (4.7%) and leishmanid (0.3%) were the dominant forms, followed by diffuse, disseminated, sporotrichoid, and erysipeloid types, 0.1% each, and then lymphedematous, lymphadenic, hyperkeratotic, paronychial, and mutilating types, 0.05% each. Based on various intrinsic methods the parasites isolated from the lesions were characterized as L. tropica.Conclusion: ACL due to L. tropica presents numerous cases of localized form and diverse uncommon clinical presentations, which mimic other disease conditions. Therefore, physicians should be aware of such manifestations for selecting appropriate treatment modality.

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Published
2017-12-26
How to Cite
1.
KHOSRAVI A, SHARIFI I, FEKRI A, KERMANIZADEH A, BAMOROVAT M, MOSTAFAVI M, AFLATOONIAN MR, KEYHANI A. Clinical Features of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Major Focus, Southeastern Iran, 1994-2014. IJPA. 12(4):544-53.
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Original Article(s)