Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2017. 12(3):423-432.

Malaria Outbreak Investigation in Chipinge, Zimbabwe: A Case-control Study
Tinashe KUREYA, Augustine NDAIMANI, Maxwell MHLANGA


Background: Malaria outbreaks are common in Zimbabwe. They are common in Manicaland, which has the greatest burden of malaria in the country.

Methods: A matched case control study was conducted to investigate the malaria outbreak in ward 13 and 14 of Chipinge district in Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe, week 30 to week 40 of year 2015. A sample size of 92 (46 cases and 46 controls) was used. Guided interviews were conducted with the aid of a structured questionnaire and a checklist. The investigation assessed factors associated with contracting malaria and the community knowledge levels on malaria.

Results: Participants who stayed in houses with open eaves had 2.4 odds (95% CI=1.0; 5.6) of contracting malaria compared to those who lived in houses without open eaves. Staying within a radius of 3 km from the river or swamp also predisposed people to contracting malaria (OR =2.7, 95%CI=1.2; 6.3). People who had no insecticide treated mosquito nets hanged in their bed rooms had odds of 2.2 (95%CI=1.2; 6.4) of contracting malaria compared to those that hanged insecticide-treated mosquito nets in their bedrooms. Consequently, among people exposed to outdoor activities in the evening and at night, those that had insecticide-treated mosquito nets hanged in their rooms were more protected from malaria than those that did not.

Conclusion: There is high need to intensify all pillars in the malaria prevention and control programs and maintenance of a strong surveillance system to prevent future occurrences of outbreaks.


Case-control, Malaria, Manicaland, Outbreak investigation

Full Text:



World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC). World malaria report. Zimbabwe National Malaria Control Program Database. 2014.

Manicaland Province Malaria report of 2015, Zimbabwe [Unpublished].

Freeman T. Community-based malaria control in Zimbabwe. Bull World Health Organ. 1999; 77(3): 295–6.

Unworried O, Zizhou ST, Mungati M. Malaria outbreak investigation, Goromonzi district. 2014. [Unpublished report].

Chiruvu RT, Kanengoni B, Mungati M et al. Malaria Outbreak investigation in Chitulipasi, Beitbridge District, Matabeleland South Province, 2015. IJRDO-Journal of Health Sciences and Nursing. 2017; 2 (5): 104-120.

Kinung'hi SM, Mashauri F, Mwanga JR et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria among communities: Comparing epidemic and non-epidemic prone communities of Muleba district, North-western Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10:395.

Freeman T. Investigation into the 1994 malaria outbreak of the Manyuchi dam area of Mberengwa and Mwenezi districts, Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe: Dare-salaam. 1994. Available from: HTTP/

Krishnamoorthy K, Jambulingam P, Natarajan R et al. Altered environment and risk of malaria outbreak in South Andaman, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India affected by tsunami disaster. Malar J. 2005; 4:32.

Vundule C, Mharakurwa S. Knowledge, practices, and perceptions about malaria in rural communities of Zimbabwe: relevance to malaria control. Bull World Health Organ. ;74(1):55-60.

Brooker S, Leslie T, Kolaczinski K et al. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(10):1600-2.

Filler SJ, MacArthur JR, Parise M et al. Locally acquired mosquito-transmitted malaria: A guide for Investigations in the United States. 2006. Atlanta: CDC. Available from:

Kumar A, Valecha N, Jain T et al. Burden of Malaria in India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 77 (6): 69-78.

Mueller I, Namuigi P, Kundi J et al. Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72(5):554-60.

Ferreira IM, Yokoo EM, Souza-Santos R et al. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Cien Saude Colet. 17(9):2415-24.

Bishi R. Fetomaternal outcomes of pregnant women admitted with malaria at Parirenyatwa hospital and in Mashonaland East province of Zimbabwe. [Masters’ Thesis]. University of Zimbabwe. 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.