Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2017. 12(2):284-291.

Epidemiology of Urinary Schistosomiasis among School Children in the Alsaial Alsagair Village, River Nile State, Sudan
Yassir SULIEMAN, Randa E. ELTAYEB, Theerakamol PENGSAKUL, Azzam AFIFI, Mohamed A. ZAKARIA


Background: Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease, infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. This study assessed the situation of the urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren of the Alsaial Alsagair village, Sudan.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2016, in the Alsaial Alsagair village, and 385 samples of urine were collected and processed using the centrifugation/sedimentation technique.

Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of the disease among the pupils studied were 1.82% and 40.1 eggs/10ml urine, respectively. The prevalence of infection among male pupils was 3.1%, and for females was 0.52%, while the intensity among males was 42.3 eggs/10ml and for females was 27 eggs/10ml urine. No significant difference in the disease prevalence between the 7-10 yr age group and the 11-14 yr age group was found, while the over 14 yr age group was found to be free from infection. However, a considerably higher intensity of the parasite was found among the 7-10 yr age group compared to the other age group infected. A high prevalence and intensity of infection was observed among pupils who were active in swimming and working in the fields. Most of the pupils interviewed were found to be unaware of the disease and the prevalence and intensity of the infection was found to be higher among the group who were aware of the disease.

Conclusion: Findings show the need for an integrated control program against urinary schistosomiasis including the treatment of all infected children and the implementation of a health education program.


Prevalence; Intensity; Urinary schistosomiasis; Sudan

Full Text:



Sturrock RF. The schistosomes and their intermediate hosts. In: Mahmoud A.A.F., ed. Schistosomiasis. London: Imperial College Press, 2001.

Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J et al. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2006; 368(9541): 1106–18.

World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis, Fact Sheet No 115; 2013.

Gracio MA, Rollinson D, Costa C et al. Intestinal schistosomiasis report of the first cases in Guinea Bissau. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992; 86(2):183.

Steinmann P, Keiser J, Bos R et al. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006; 6(7):411–25.

Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE et al. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014; 383 (9936):2253–64.

Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012; 380 (9859):2163–96.

World Health Organization. Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of ne-glected tropical diseases. 2nd WHO report on neglected diseases. 2012; 99–105.

World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. Prevention of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series 912, Geneva, 2002. 2002;912:i-vi, 1-57

World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis, Fact Sheet.; 2016.

Ukoli FMA. Schistosoma and schistosomiasis. Introduction to parasitology in tropical Africa, John Willey and Sons Limited. New York, 1984.

Ross AG, Bertley PB, Sleigh AC et al. Schistosomiasis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(16): 1212–20.

Ximenes R, Southgate B, Smith PG et al. Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in an urban area in the Northeast of Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003;14(6):409–21.

Gazzinelli A, Velasquez-Melendez G, Crawford SB et al. Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in a poor rural area in Brazil. Acta Trop. 2006; 99(2-3): 260–271.

Inobaya MT, Olveda RM, Chau TN et al. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective. Res Rep Trop Med. 2014;2014(5):65–75.

Ahmed AA. Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the Guneid sugar cane scheme, Gezira state. Sudan. Ph.D.Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, 1998.

Balfour A. First report of Welcome Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Sudan Government, 1904.

Archibald RG. The epidemiology of schisto¬somiasis in the Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg.1933; 36: 345–348.

Daffala AA, Sulieman SM. Schistosoma haemato¬bium in Kordofan region, Sudan. A prevalence survey. Bull World Health Organ. 1988; 56: 417–426.

Zakaria AS. Epidemiological observations of intestinal schistosomiasis in Jebel Marra area, Darfur State, Sudan. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, 2006.

Khairala MA. Epidemiological observations and control assessment of schistosomiasis in New Halfa Scheme, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, 2006.

Fenwick A, Cheesmond AK, Kardaman M, Amin MA. Manjing BK. Schistosomiasis among laboring communities in the Gezira ir¬rigated area, Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg. 1982; 85(1): 3–11.

Sulieman YA. Epidemiological observations and control assessment of schistosomiasis in the Northern region of the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, 2006.

Salim AM. Transmission of Schistosoma haemato¬bium in Al Rahad Area. North Kordofan State, Sudan. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum, 1996.

Ahmed AA. Schistosomiasis in sugar cane schemes, Sudan. Sudan J Nat Sci.2006; 4: 1–11.

World Health Organization. The control of schistosomiasis: 2nd report of the WHO expert committee on schistosomiasis. WHO technical report series No. 830, 1993.

Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM et al. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol. 1997; 83(4): 575–83.

Ndamukong KJ, Ayuk MA, Dinga JS et al. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children of the Kotto Barombi Health Area, Cameroon. East Afr Med J. 2001; 78(6):287–9.

Roberto Deganello, Mario Cruciani, Claudio Beltramello et al. Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni among children of Southern Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007; 13(10): 1504–1506.

Dabo A, Badawi HM, Bary B et al. Urinary schistosomiasis among pre-school children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali. Parasit Vectors. 2011; 4: 21.

Kabiru M, Ikeh EI, Aziah I et al. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infections: a community based survey among school children and adults in Wamakko town, Sokoto State Nigeria. Int J Trop Med Public Health. 2013; 2: 12–21.

Afifi A, Ahmed AA, Sulieman Y et al. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis among villagers of the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme, Sudan. Iran J Parasitol. 2016; 11(1): 110–5.

King CL, Miller FD, Hussein M et al. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection in six villages of Upper Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982; 31(2): 320–7.

El-Khoby T, Galal N, Fenwick A et al. The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: Summary findings in nine governorates. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000; 62 (2 Suppl): 88–99.

Seck I, Faye A, Gning B et al. La prévalence de la bilharziose urinaire et ses facteurs de risque en milieu scolaire rural à Fatick, au Sénégal. Médecine d’Afrique Noire. 2007; 54:125–131. In French.

John R, Ezekiel M, Philbert C et al. Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. BMC Infect Dis. 2008; 8:110.

Enk MJ, Lima AC, Barros Hda S et al. Factors related to transmission and infection with Schistosoma mansoni in a village in the South Eastern Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010; 105(4): 570–7.

Klumpp RK, Webbe G. Focal, seasonal and behavioural patterns of infection and transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in farming village at the Volta Lake, Ghana. J Trop Med hyg. 1987; 90(5): 265–81.

Tay SK, Amankwa R, Gbedema SY. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection in Ghana: a retrospective case study in Kumasi. Int J Parasitol Res. 2011; 3: 48–52.

Pugh RN, Gilles HM. Malumfashi endemic disease research project. III Urinary schistosomiasis: a longitudinal study. Ann Trop Med Parasit. 1978; 72(5): 471–482.

Wilkins HA, Goll P, Marshall TF. The significance of proteinuria and haematuria in Schistosoma haematobium infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(1):74-80.

Wagatsuma Y, Aryeetey ME, Nkrumah FK et al. Highly symptom-aware children were heavily infected with urinary schistosomiasis in southern Ghana. Cent Afr J Med. 2003; 49(1-2):16–9.

Yapi YG, Briet OJ, Diabate S et al. Rice irrigation and schistosomiasis in savannah and forest areas of Côte d'Ivoire. Acta Trop. 2005; 93(2): 201–211.

Ugbomoiko US, Ofoezie IE, Okoye IC et al. Factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in two peri-urban communities in south-western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(5):409-19.

Deribe K, Eldaw A, Hadziabduli S et al. High prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two communities in South Darfur: implication for interventions. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:14.

Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA et al. Prevalence and associated factors of schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2377.

van der Werf M, de Vlas SJ, Brooker S et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Trop. 2003; 86(2-3): 125–39.

Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2edn, Cambridge University Press: New York, 2005; 236–239.

Abdel-Wahab MF, Strickland GT, El-Sahly A et al. Schistosomiasis mansoni in an Egyptian village in the Nile Delta. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980;29(5):868–74.

Marcal-Junior O, Hotta LK, Patucci RM et al. Schistosomiasis mansoni in an area of low transmission. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1993;35(4):331-5.

Alembrhan A, Tadesse D, Zewdneh T. Infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in suburbs of Mekelle city, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. MEJS. 2013; 5:174–188.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.