Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2017. 12(1):12-21.

Human Permanent Ectoparasites; Recent Advances on Biology and Clinical Significance of Demodex Mites: Narrative Review Article
Dorota LITWIN, WenChieh CHEN, Ewa DZIKA, Joanna KORYCIŃSKA

Abstract


Background: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research.

Methods: We conducted a broad review based on the electronic database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus with regard to the characteristics of the Demodex species, methods of examination and worldwide epidemiology, molecular studies and its role in the complex human ecosystem.

Results: Demodex mites are organisms with a worldwide importance as they act in indicating several dermatoses, under certain conditions. However, correlations between Demodex and other parasites or microorganisms occupying one host, as well as interactions between these arachnids and its symbiotic bacteria should be considered. There are few methods of human mites' examination depending on purpose of the study. Nevertheless, paying attention must be needed as polymorphism of Demodex species has been reported.

Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on different aspects of Demodex mites’ biology and significance of these arachnids in human’s health.


Keywords


Demodex folliculorum; Demodex brevis; Demodicosis; Ectoparasites

Full Text:

PDF

References


Zhao YE, Xu JR, Hu L, Wu LP, Wang ZH. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae). Exp Parasitol. 2012; 131(1):45-51.

Kuźna-Grygiel W, Kosik-Bogacka D, Czepita D, Sambor I. Objawowe i bezobjawowe inwazje Demodex spp. powiek u osób w różnych grupach wiekowych. Wiadomości Parazytologiczne. 2004; 50(1): S.55-61.

Humiczewska M, Kuźna W, Hermach U. Częstość występowania objawowej i bezobjawowej demodekozy ocznej wśród mieszkańców Szczecina. Wiad Parazytol. 1994; 40(1): 69-71.

Chen W, Plewig G. Human demodicosis: revisit and a proposed classification. Br J Dermatol. 2014; 170(6):1219-25.

Spickett SG. Studies on Demodex folliculorum Simon (1842). Parasitology. 1961; 51: 181-192.

Nutting WB, Firda KE, Desch CEJr. Topology and histopathology of hair follicle mites (demodicidae) of man. Progress in Acarology. 1989; (1): 113-121.

Rufli T, Mumcuoglu Y. The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis: biology and medical importance. Dermatologica. 1981; 162(1):1-11.

Lacey N, Kavanagh K, Tseng SC. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases. Biochem (Lond). 2009; 31(4):2-6.

Szkaradkiewicz A, Chudzicka-Strugała I, Karpiński TM, Goślińska-Pawłowska O, Tułecka T, Chudzicki W, Szkaradkiewicz AK, Zaba R. Bacillus oleronius and Demodex mite infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012; 18(10):1020-5.

Yokoyama T, Yamaguchi R, Itoh T, Toh U, Nakagawa S, Kage M. Detection of Demodex folliculorum from nipple discharge. Diagn Cytopathol. 2014; 42(3):236-7.

Serpil S, Ulku K, Cemil C, Nasuhi Engin A, Sezai S, Meryem I. Positivity of Demodex spp. in biopsy specimens of nevi. Trop Biomed. 2009; 26(1):51-6.

Sönmez ÖU, Yalçın ZG, Karakeçe E, Çiftci İH, Erdem T. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer. Acta Parasitol. 2013; 58(4):551-5.

Gutierrez Y. Diagnostic pathology of parasitic infections with clinical correlations, 2nd ed. New York. NY: Oxford University Press. 2000.

Morsy TA, el Okbi MM, el-Said AM, Arafa MA, Sabry AH. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1995; 25(2):509–12.

Wang YP, Li P, Bing GQ. A case report of human dermatitis caused by canine Demodex. J N Bethune Univ Med Sci. 1998; 24(3):265. (in Chinese)

Hu L, Zhao YE, Cheng J, Ma JX. Molecular identification of four phenotypes of human Demodex in China. Exp Parasitol. 2014; 142:38-42.

de Rojas M, Riazzo C, Callejón R, Guevara D, Cutillas C. Morphobiometrical and molecular study of two populations of Demodex folliculorum from humans. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(1):227–233.

Georgala S, Katoulis AC, Kylafis GD, Koumantaki-Mathioudaki E, Georgala C, Aroni K. Increased density of Demodex folliculorum and evidence of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in subjects with papulopustular rosacea. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001; 15(5):441-4.

Moravvej H, Dehghan-Mangabadi M, Ab-basian MR, Meshkat-Razavi G. Association of rosacea with demodicosis. Arch Iran Med. 2007. 10(2):199-203.

Karincaoglu Y, Tepe B, Kalayci B, Atambay M, Seyhan M. Is Demodex folliculorum an aetiological factor in seborrhoeic dermatitis? Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009; 34(8):e516-e520.

Jing X, Shuling G, Ying L. Environmental scanning electron microscopy observation of the ultrastructure of Demodex. Microsc Res Tech. 2005; 68(5):284-9.

Desch CEJr. The digestive system of Demodex folliculorum (Acari: Demodicidae) of man: a light and electron microscope study. Progress in Acarology. Red. G. P. Channabasavanna, ‎C. A. Viraktamath. 1989; 187-195.

Desch C, Nutting WB. Demodex folliculorum (Simon) and D. brevis (Akbulatova) of man: redescription and reevaluation. J Parasitol. 1972; 58(1):169-77.

Hart BJ. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations. Allergy. 1998; 53(48 Suppl): 13-7.

Zhao YE, Guo NA, Li Chen, Lu Zhao-hui. The dynamic observation of the morphologic structure and activity of human Demode in different stages. Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control. 2007; 18:120-123.

Zhao YE, Guo N, Wu LP. The effect of temperature on the viability of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. Parasitol Res. 2009; 105(6):1623-8.

Tsai YJ, Chung WC, Wang LC, Ju YT, Hong CL, Tsai YY, Li YH, Wu YL. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis. J Insect Sci. 2011; 11:76.

Zhao YE, Guo N, Wu LP. Influence of temperature and medium on viability of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis (Acari: Demodicidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2011; 54(4):421-5.

https://www.biotechnologie.de/BIO/Navigation/EN/Funding/foerderbeispiele,did=104568.html

Zhao YE, Wu LP. Phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences. Parasitol Res. 2012; 111(3):1113-21.

Zhao YE, Wang ZH, Xu Y, Xu JR, Liu WY, Wei M, Wang CY. Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012; 13(10):763-8.

Zhao YE, Wu LP. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae). Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(6):2395-402.

Zhao YE, Wang ZH, Xu Y, Wu LP, Hu L. Secondary structure prediction for complete rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, and comparison of divergent domains structures across Acari. Exp Parasitol. 2013; 135(2):370-381.

Zhao YE, Ma JX, Hu L, Wu LP, De Rojas M. Discrimination between Demodex folliculorum (Acari: Demodicidae) isolates from China and Spain based on mitochondrial cox1 sequences. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2013; 14(9):829-836.

Zhao YE, Hu L, Ma JX. Molecular identification of four phenotypes of human Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Parasitol Res. 2013; 112(11):3703-11.

Li F, Wang YP. Using gluey cellophane tape for lab diagnosis of demodicosis. J Norman Bethune Univ Med Sci. 1986; 12(4):298–300. (in Chinese)

Ya-e Zhao, Na Guo, Meng Xun, Ji-ru Xu, Mei Wang, Duo-lao Wang. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae). J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011; 12(12):998-1007.

Forton F, Seys B. Density of Demodex folliculorum in rosacea: a case control study using standardized skin surface biopsy. Br J Dermatol. 1993; 128:650–9.

Bonnar E, Eustace P, Powell FC. The Demodex mite population in rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993; 28(3):443-8.

Lazaridou E, Apalla Z, Sotiraki S, Ziakas NG, Fotiadou C, Ioannides D. Clinical and laboratory study of rosacea in northern Greece. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010; 24(4):410-4.

Marks R, Dawber RP. Skin surface biopsy: an improved technique for the examination of the horny layer. Br J Dermatol. 1971; 84(2):117-23.

Aşkin U, Seçkin D. Comparison of the two techniques for measurement of the density of Demodex folliculorum: standardized skin surface biopsy and direct microscopic examination. Br J Dermatol. 2010; 162(5):1124-6.

Segal R, Mimouni D, Feuerman H, Pagovitz O, David M. Dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool in demodicidosis. Int J Dermatol. 2010; 49(9):1018-23.

Sattler EC, Maier T, Hoffmann VS, Hegyi J, Ruzicka T, Berking C. Noninvasive in vivo detection and quantification of Demodex mites by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Br J Dermatol. 2013; 169(1):213-5.

Turgut Erdemir A, Gurel MS, Koku Aksu AE, Bilgin Karahalli F, Incel P, Kutlu Haytoğlu NS, Falay T. Reflectance confocal microscopy vs. standardized skin surface biopsy for measuring the density of Demodex mites. Skin Res Technol. 2014; 20(4):435-9.

Madeira NG, Sogayar MI. The prevalence of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in a population sample from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1993; 26(4):221-4.

Isa NH, Loong LW, Fang GH, Mohamad AM, Razali N, Rani NI, Manap SN, Abdullah SR. Demodicosis among university medical students in Malaysia and the effects of facial cleanser and moisturizer usage. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011; 42(6):1375-80.

Hu Q, Wang Y. Investigation on the prevalence of human Demodex among 2,248 medical students in inner Mongolia. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2001; 19(4):239-40.

Vargas-Arzola J, Reyes-Velasco L, Segura-Salvador A, Márquez-Navarro A, Díaz-Chiguer DL, Nogueda-Torres B. Prevalence of Demodex mites in eyelashes among people of Oaxaca, Mexico. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2012; 59(2):257-62.

Cui JH, Wang C. Facial Demodex infestation among urban and rural residents in Shangqiu City of Henan Province. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2012; 30(4):283-5.

Czepita D, Kuźna-Grygiel W, Kosik-Bogacka D. Investigations on the occurrence as well as the role of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in the pathogensis of blepharitis. Klin Oczna. 2005; 107(1-3):80-2.

Patrizi A, Neri I, Chieregato C, Misciali M. Demodicidosis in immunocompetent young children: report of eight cases. Dermatology. 1997; 195(3):239-42.

Aydingöz IE, Dervent B, Güney O. Demodex folliculorum in pregnancy. Int J Dermatol. 2000; 39(10):743-5.

Porta Guardia CA. Demodex folliculorum: its association with oily skin surface rather than rosacea lesions. Int J Dermatol. 2015; 54(1):e14-7.

Emre S, Aycan OM, Atambay M, Bilak S, Daldal N, Karincaoglu Y. What is the importance of Demodex folliculorum in Behçet's disease? Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2009; 33(2):158-61.

Erbagci Z, Erbagci I, Erkiliç S. High incidence of demodicidosis in eyelid basal cell carcinomas. Int J Dermatol. 2003; 42(7):567-71.

Inci M, Kaya OA, Inci M, Yula E, Gökçe H, Rifaioğlu MM, Demirtaş O, Yengil E. Investigating Demodex folliculorum in patients with urological cancer. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2012; 36(4):208-10.

Karincaoglu Y, Esrefoglu Seyhan M, Bayram N, Aycan O, Taskapan H. Incidence of Demodex folliculorum in patients with end stage chronic renal failure. Ren Fail. 2005; 27(5):495-9.

Yamashita LS, Cariello AJ, Geha NM, Yu MC, Hofling-Lima AL. Demodex folliculorum on the eyelash follicle of diabetic patients. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2011; 74(6):422-4.

Sun J, Gui X, He J, Liu HM, Yu HY, Xia CY, Xu Y. The relationship between infestation of Demodex folliculorum and epidermal neoplasm on face. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2005; 23(6):428-31.

Kaya S, Selimoglu MA, Kaya OA, Ozgen U. Prevalence of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in childhood malnutrition and malignancy. Pediatr Int. 2013; 55(1):85-9.

Garbacewicz A, Jaworski J, Grytner-Zięcina B. Demodex mite infestation in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Parasitol. 2012; 57(1):99-100.

Ozçelik S, Sümer Z, Değerli S, Ozyazici G, Hayta SB, Akyol M, Candan F. The incidence of Demodex folliculorum in patients with chronic kidney deficiency. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007; 31(1):66-8.

Akilov OE, Mumcuoglu KY. Association between human demodicosis and HLA class I. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003; 28(1):70-3.

Czepita D, Kuźna-Grygiel W, Czepita M, Grobelny A. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2007; 53(1):63-7.

Coston TO . Demodex folliculorum blepharitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1967; 65: 361-92.

Liang L, Ding X, Tseng SC. High prevalence of Demodex brevis infestation in chalazia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157(2):342-348.

Yam JC, Tang BS, Chan TM, Cheng AC. Ocular demodicidosis as a risk factor of adult recurrent chalazion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2014; 24(2):159-63.

Singh SK, Dimri U. The immuno-pathological conversions of canine demodicosis. Vet Parasitol. 2014; 203(1-2):1-5.

Nutting WB, Beerman H. Atypical giant cells in Antechinus stuartii due to demodicid mites. J Invest Dermatol. 1965; 45(6): 504-9.

Elston DM. Demodex mites: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010; 28(5): 502-504.

Jimenez-Acosta F, Planas L, Penneys N. Demodex mites contain immunoreactive lipase. Arch Dermatol. 1989; 125(10):1436-7.

Mason K. Why do harmless commensals like Malassezia, Demodex, and Staphylococcus cause such devastating skin diseases? Australian College of Veterinary Scientists. 2003

Knowles SCL, Fenton A, Petchey OL, Jones TR, Barber R, Pedersen AB. Stability of within-host–parasite communities in a wild mammal system. Proc Biol Sci. 2013; 280(1762):20130598.

Barriga OO, al-Khalidi NW, Martin S, Wyman M. Evidence of immunosuppression by Demodex canis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1992; 32(1-2):37-46.

Mason I, Mason K, Lloyd D. A review of the biology of canine skin with respect to the commensals Staphylococcus intermedins, Demodex canis and Malassezia pachydermatis. Vet Dermatol. 1996; 7: 119–132.

Zug R, Hammerstein P. Bad guys turned nice? A critical assessment of Wolbachia mutualisms in arthropod host. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2015; 90(1):89-111.

Koehncke A, Telschow A, Werren JH, Hammerstein P. Life and death of an influential passenger: Wolbachia and the evolution of CI-modifiers by their hosts. PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(2): e4425.

Jakob F, Strau B , Arndt Telschow. Modeling the indirect effect of Wolbachia on the infection dynamics of horizontally transmitted viruses. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6: 378.

Borgo SN, Sattler EC, Hogardt M, Adler K, Plewig G. PCR analysis for Wolbachia in human and canine Demodex mites. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009; 301(10):747-52.

Hirsch-Hoffmann S, Kaufmann C, Bänninger PB, Thiel MA. Treatment options for Demodex blepharitis: patient choice and efficacy. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2015; 232(4):384-387.

Salem DA, El-Shazly A, Nabih N, El-Bayoumy Y, Saleh S. Evaluation of the efficacy of oral ivermectin in comparison with ivermectin-metronidazole combined therapy in the treatment of ocular and skin lesions of Demodex folliculorum. Int J Infect Dis. 2013; 17(5):e343-7.

Abokwidir M, Fleischer AB. An emerging treatment: topical ivermectin for papulopustular rosacea. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015; 26(4):379-80.

Gao YY, Xu DL, Huang lJ, Wang R, Tseng SC. Treatment of ocular itching associated with ocular demodicosis by 5% tea tree oil ointment. Cornea. 2012; 31(1):14-7.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.