Prevalence of Trichomoniasis among 18-48 Year-old Women in Northwest of Iran
AbstractBackground: The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis among women aged 18 to 48 yr in Ardabil, northwestern Iran and the relationship between demographic factors and the risk of infection.Methods: Vaginal discharge samples of 914 women aged 18 to 48 yr, referred to Gynecology Clinic of Sabalan Hospital of Ardabil, Iran in 2014, were collected and Trichomonas vaginalis infection was examined using wet mount and Dorset culture medium. In addition, demographic data was collected using a questionnaire as well as clinical examination, and analyzed with SPSS ver. 16, using Chi-square test, and t-test.Results: Of the 914 samples studied, 3.38% by wet mount and 4.48% by parasite culture were infected by T. vaginalis. Sensitivity of direct or wet mount method was 75.6% compared to culture method (standard). We found a significant statistical relationship between trichomoniasis infection and preterm birth (P=0.011).Conclusion: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in Ardabil compared to global statistics (5%-74%) is low. Interestingly, the results of this study (4.84%) were consistent with the results obtained in Tabriz (4.46%).
Calzada F, Yepez Mulia L, Tapia Conteras A. Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 113(3): 248- 51.
Kesli R, Pektas B, Ozdemir M, Gunenc D, Coskun E, Baykan M, Baysal B. Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge specimens for trichomonas vaginalis and other micro – organism in 18- 45 age group women. Turkiye Parasitol Derg. 2012; 36 (3): 182- 4.
Victoria J Johnston, Mabey D C. Global epidemiology and control of Trichomonas vaginalis. Current Opinion Infect Dis. 2008; 21: 56- 64.
Jamali R, Zareikar B, Usofi S,Ghazghanchi A. Comparison of the sensitivity of wet smear and culture for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis. J Lorestan Univ Med Sci. 2006; 8: 80- 85. [in Persian]
Matini M, Rezae S, Mohebali M, Maghsood AH, Rabiee S, Fallah M, Rezaeian M. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Hamadan City, Western Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012; 7(2):67-72.
Zangiabadi M, Qureshi M, Khoushideh M, Roudbari M, Bahrami Sh. Survey of Sensitivity of Wet smear and Dorset medium in comparison with Diamond medium for Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis. Tabib-E-Shargh. 2002; 4(3): 141-147.
Badparva E, PapiO, Kheirandish F, Pornia Y, Azizi M. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media. Yafteh. 2010; 12(1): 25-30.
Ryder N, Woods H, Mckay K, Giddings N, Lenton JA, Little C, Jeoffreys N, McNulty AM. Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence increases with remoteness in rural and remote New South Wales Australia. Sex Transm Dis. 2012; 39 (12): 938- 41.
Muluneh A, Tadesse K, Nigus F. Syndromic Management Approach and Wet Mount Microscopy of Trichomonas vaginalis in Pregnant Women and Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendants in Merawi Health Center, Merawi, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. International STD Research & Reviews. 2013; 1(1): 30- 38.
Fule SR, Fule RP,Tankhiwale NS. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012; 30 (3): 314- 6
Crucitti T, Jespers V, Mulenga C, Khondowe S, Vandepitte J,Buve A. Trichomonas vaginalis is Highly Prevalent in Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women, and Commerical Sex Workers in Ndola, Zambia. Sexually Transmitted Dis. 2010; 37 (4): 223- 227.
Akbarian AR, Akhlaghi L, Ourmazdi H, Foroohesh H, Falahati M, Farokhnejad R. An Investigation on Coincidence of Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis and their Effects on Pregnant Women Referred to Shahid Akbarabadi Maternity Hospital in Tehran During 2002-2003. Razi J Sci. 2005; 12(4): 227-237.
Falahati M, Akhlaghi L, Abianeh M, Assadi M, Nami S,Fateh R. Prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in women. Life Sci J. 2013; 10: 484- 479.
Rasti S, Behrashti M, Mousavi GH, Moniri R. Complication of trichomoniasis on the pregnant women. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2011; 4(1): 61- 3.
Gharaei A, Ebrahimzadeh A, Shah Bakhsh A. Survey of Frequency, Clinical Findings and Diagnosis Methods for Detection of Trichomoniasis in Women Referred to Gynecology Clinic in South-East of Iran. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci. 2013; 5(4): 803-811.