Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran
AbstractBackground: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56) yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5%) cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8%) individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2%) cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6%) with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3%) of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%), Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2%) and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%). Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6%) individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.
Bundy DA, Hall A, Medley GF, Savioli L. Eval-uating measures to control intestinal parasitic in-fections. World Health Stat Q. 1999; 45(2-3): 168-79.
Hazrati Tappeh Kh, Mohammadzadeh H, Nejad Rahim R, Barazesh A, Khashaveh Sh, Taherkhani H. Prevalence of intestinal Parasitic Infections among Mentally Disabled Children and adults of Urmia, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2010; 5(2): 60-64.
Liu LX, Weller PF. Strongyloidiasis and other intestinal nematode infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993; 7: 655−682.
Berk SL, Verghese A, Alvarez S, Hall K, Smith B. Clinical and epidemiologic features of stron-gyloidiasis: A prospective study in rural Tennessee. Arch Intern Med. 1987; 147(7): 1257-61.
Walzer PD, Milder JE, Banwell JG, Kilgore G, Klein M, Parker R. Epidemiologic features of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in an endemic area of the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982; 31(2): 313-9.
de Oliveira LC, Ribeiro CT, Mendes Dde M, Oliveira TC, Costa-Cruz JM. Frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in alcoholics. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002; 97(1): 119-21.
Davidson RA, Fletcher RH, Chapman LE. Risk factors for strongyloidiasis (1984). A case-control study. Arch Intern Med. 144(2): 321-4.
Braun T, Fekete T, Lynch A. Strongyloidiasis in an institution for mentally retarded adults. Arch Intern Med. 1988; 148: 634–6.
Proctor EM, Muth HA, Proudfoot DL, Allen AB, Fisk R, Isaac-Renton J, Black WA. Endemic institutional strongyloidiasis in British Columbia. CMAJ. 1987; 136(11): 1173-6.
Nair D. Screening for Strongyloides infection among the institutionalized mentally disabled. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001; 14(1): 51-3.
Marnell F, Guillet A, Holland C. A survey of the intestinal helminths of refugees in Juba, Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1992; 86(4): 387-93.
Sánchez PR, Guzman AP, Guillen SM, Adell RI, Estruch AM, Gonzalo IN, Olmos CR. Endemic strongyloidiasis on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. QJM. 2001; 94(7): 357-63.
Wagenvoort JH, Houben HG, Boonstra GL, Scherpbier J. Pulmonary superinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis in an immunocompromised retired coal miner. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994; 13(6): 518-9.
Pawlowski ZS. Epidemiology, prevention and control. In: Grove DI editor. Strongyloidiasis: a major roundworm infection of man. 1st ed. Taylor & Francis, London, UK, New York and Philadelphia, USA, 1989; pp. 233–249.
Keiser PB, Nutman TB. Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17(1): 208-17.
Marcos LA, Terashima A, Dupont HL, Gotuzzo E (2008). Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome: An emerging global infectious disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.2008; 102(4): 314–318.
Zaha O, Hirata T, Kinjo F, Saito A. Strongyloi-diasis--progress in diagnosis and treatment. Intern Med. 2000; 39(9): 695-700.
Kobayashi J, Hasegawa H, Soares EC, Toma H, Dacal AR, Brito MC, Yamanaka A, Foli AA, Sato Y. Studies on prevalence of Strongyloides infection in Holambra and Maceió, Brazil, by the agar plate faecal culture method. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Pau-lo. 1996; 38(4): 279-84.
Román-Sánchez P, Pastor-Guzmán A, Moreno-Guillén S, Igual-Adell R, Suñer-Generoso S, Tornero-Estébanez C. High prevalence of Stron-gyloides stercoralis among farm workers on the Mediterranean coast of Spain: analysis of the predictive factors of infection in developed countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003; 69(3): 336-40.
Gatti S, Lopes R, Cevini C, Ijaoba B, Bruno A, Bernuzzi AM, de Lio P, Monco A, Scaglia M. Intestinal parasitic infections in an institution for the mentally retarded. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000; 94(5): 453-60.
Rokni MB. The present status of human hel-minthic diseases in Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008; 102(4): 283-95.
Asmar M, Ashrafi K, Amintahmasbi H, Rahmati B, Masiha A, Hadiani MR. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the urban areas of Bandar-Anzali, northern Iran. J Guilan Univ Med Sci. 2013; 88: 18-25 [in Persian].
Ashrafi K, Saadat F, O'Neill S, Rahmati B, Amin Tahmasbi H, Pius Dalton J, Nadim A, Asadinezhad M, Rezvani SM.The endemicity of human fascioliasis in Guilan province, northern Iran: the baseline for implementation of control strategies. Iran J Public Health. 2015; 44(4): 501-11.
Sharifdini M, Kia EB, Ashrafi K, Hosseini M, Mirhendi H, Mohebali M, Kamranrashani B. An analysis of clinical characteristics of Strongyloides stercoralis in 70 indigenous patients in Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2014; 9(2): 155-62.
Sharifdini M, Mirhendi H, Ashrafi K, Hosseini M, Mohebali M, Khodadadi H, Kia EB. Comparison of nested polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human fecal samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015; 93(6): 1285-91.
Ghadirian E, Motabar M, Barzegar MA. Study of intestinal parasites in Caspian Sea area- Rudsar. J Tehran Med Fac. 1975; 5: 223-280.
Sadjadi SM. Impact of helminth infections on human nutrition and blood changes in Caspian littoral of Iran. Ph.D Dissertation in Parasitology. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1689; Tehran, Iran.
Ashrafi K. The status of human and animal fascioliasis in Iran: A narra¬tive review article. Iran J Parasitol. 2015; 10(3): 306-328.
Ashrafi K, Tahbaz A, Rahmati B. Strongyloides stercoralis: the most prevalent parasitic cause of eosinophilia in Gilan province, northern Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2010; 5(3): 40-7.
Sirivichayakul C, Pojjaroen-anant C, Wisetsing P, Siripanth C, Chanthavanich P, Pengsaa K. Prev-alence of intestinal parasitic infection among Thai people with mental handicaps. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003; 34(2): 259-63.
Razaviouon T, Masoud J. Intestinal parasitic infections in Feraydoon kenar, Mazandran prov-ince. Sci J School Public Health. 2002; 1(1): 39-49.
Arfaa F, Kayvan E, Ghadidrian E, Misaghian GH. Studies on intestinal helminthiasis in Gonbad Kavus area north-east of the Caspian littoral. Iran J Public Health. 1977; 6(1): 222-224.
Nasiri V, Esmailnia K, Karim G, Nasir M, Akhavan O. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008. Korean J Parasitol. 2009; 47(3): 265-8.
Motazedian H, Mehrabani D, Tabatabaee SH, Pakniat A, Tavalali M. Prevalence of helminth ova in soil samples from public places in Shiraz. East Mediterr Health J. 2006; 12(5): 562-5.
Rasti S, Arbabi M, Houshyar H. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the geriatric and disabled in Golabchi Center of Kashan during 2006-2007. J Kashan Univ Med Sci. 2009; 12(4): 78–82.
Shokri A, Sharifi Sarasiabi K, Hosseini Teshnizi S, Mahmoodi H. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents in central institution of southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(2): 88-91.
Davari A, Akhlaghi L, Memar AR, Namazi MJ, Hadighi R, Tabatabaee F, Tarihi S. Frequency of intestinal parasites in mentally disabled individuals keeping in rehabilitation centers of Ardabil city in 2011. J Sabzavar Uni Med Sci. 2013; 20: 101-108.
Sharif M, Daryani A, Asgarian F, Nasrolahei M. Intestinal parasitic infections among intellectual disability children in rehabilitation centers of northern Iran. Res Dev Disabil. 2010; 31(4): 924–928.
Schupf N, Ortiz M, Kapell D, Kiely M, Rudelli RD. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among individuals with mental retardation in New York State. Ment Retard. 1995; 33(2): 84–9.
Brook I, Fish CH, Schantz PM, Cotton DD. Toxocariasis in an institution for the mentally re-tarded. Infect Control. 1981; 2(4): 317-20.
Panaitescu D, Căpraru T, Bugarin V. Study of the incidence of intestinal and systemic parasitoses in a group of children with handicaps. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 54(1-2): 65-74.