Comparative Efficacy of Diethylcarbamazine, Nitazoxanide and Nanocomposite of Nitazoxanide and Silver Nanoparticles on the Dehydrogenases of TCA Cycle in Setaria cervi, in Vitro
AbstractBackground: Bovine filariid, Setaria cervi may cause serious pathological condition such as cerebrospinal nematodiasis in sheep, goat and horses. Since TCA cycle enzymes have certain biological functions that make them essential for the survival of parasite and therefore, efficacy of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), nitazoxanide (NTZ) and a nanocomposite of nitazoxanide and silver nanoparticles (NTZ+AgNPs) was assessed on succinate, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases in the microfilariae (mf) and adult S. cervi worms. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India during 2015-2016. Adult and microfilariae of S. cervi were incubated in 100 mg/ml of DEC, NTZ, and NTZ+AgNPs for 24 and 6 h, respectively at 37 °C. Succinate, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases were localized by putting the mf and adult worms in the incubating medium containing their respective substrates at 37 °C for 2 h followed by counterstaining in 2% methylene green for 15 min. Results: Maximum inhibition of TCA cycle enzymes was observed in both microfilariae and adult worms treated with nanocomposite of NTZ-AgNPs. Ruptured sheath along with nanoparticles sticking to the body surface was noticed in NTZ+AgNPs treated microfilariae. Conclusion: NTZ+AgNPs proved most effective synergistic combination against TCA cycle enzymes which blocked the isocitrate and malate dehydrogenase almost completely, and succinate dehydrogenase to large extent in both microfilariae as well as adult worms of S. cervi. AgNPs ruptured the sheath and allowed the NTZ to attach and penetrate the main body to exert maximum effect on the enzymes.
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