Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2016. 11(3):396-405.

Tegumental Effects of Methanolic Extract of Balanites aegyp-tiaca Fruits on Adult Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901) under Laboratory Conditions


Background: Weak efficacy of different fasciolicidal compounds used for treatment of paramphistomosis has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of the methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (BAE) on adult Paramphistomum microbothrium.

Methods: The effect of BAE on adult P. microbothrium after 24 h incubating the parasites in RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml BAE was determined by light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

Results: Differences in response to BAE action were concentration dependent.The major target organ that was highly affected was the tegument. Maximum anthelmintic activity was found with a dose of 200 µg/ml BAE, at which distinct damage to the whole body surface of the trematodes was very much distinct. Shape and structure of both suckers were deformed due to BAE. This damage would undoubtedly disrupt many of the physiological processes associated with the tegument. Besides, the damage of the tegumental folds of the acetabular region might disrupt its function in drawing the rumen wall tissue of the host into the acetabular cavity.

Conclusion: the use of methanolic extract of B. aegyptiaca fruits offers a new dimension and potential for control of such a neglected infectious disease in ruminants, at a time when paramphistomosis has emerged as an important cause of productivity loss.


Paramphistomum mi-crobothrium; Balanites aegyptiaca; In vitro effect; Tegument

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