Molecular Evidence of Trichobilharzia Species (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) in the Snails of Lymnaea auricularia from Urmia Suburb, North West Iran
AbstractBackground: The present study was carried out to detect the infection of larval stages of Trichobilharzia species in the snail Lymnaea auricularia in northwestern Iran based on DNA analysis. Methods: A total number of 320 snails of L. auricularia were sampled from four water-bodies located in the suburb of Urmia City, North West Iran, during May to November 2011. The snails were first microscopically inspected for the infection with larval stages of trematodes. Genomic DNA was extracted from the snails and PCR was performed to amplify a fragment of the ribosomal DNA of Trichobilharzia species in the infected snails.Results: Microscopic examinations indicated that 11.25% (36 out of 320) of the snails were infected with larval stages of trematodes, while the PCR patterns showed a much higher infection rate (31.25%, 100/320). According to the PCR, the infections were caused by the larval stages of T. szidati (21.56%, 69/320) and T. franki (9.69%, 31/320) or both of them (8.44%, 27/320). The infected snails were observed in three out of the four studied sites. The highest infection rate in a single site was 50% (25/50). Only 7.81% (25 out of 320) of the infected snails were from the plain areas, while the remaining was from high altitudes. Conclusion: Results of this study contribute the utility of the employed technique for quick and accurate detection of the infection with trichobilharzian species in their intermediate host snails, which may have potential zoonotic role in the region.
Jouet D, Skìrnisson K, Kolàrovà L, Fertè H. Mo-lecular diversity of Trichobilharzia franki in two in-termediate hosts (Radix auricularia and Radix peregra): a complex of species. Infect Genet Evol. 2010; 10 (8): 1218-27.
Horák P, Kolárová L, Adema CM. Biology of the schistosome genus Trichobilharzia. Adv Parasitol. 2002; 52:155-233.
Horák P, Kolářová L. Bird schistosomes: do they die in mammalian skin? Trends Parasitol. 2001; 17:66-9.
Müller V., Kimmig P. Trichobilharzia franki n. sp. die ursache für badedermatitiden in südwestdeutschen baggerseen. Appl Parasitol. 1994; 35(1):12-31.
Horák P, Kolárová L, Dvorak J. Trichobilharzia regenti n. sp. (Schistosomatidae, Bilharziellinae), a new nasal schistosome from Europe. Parasite 1998; 5: 349-57.
Neuhaus W. Biologie und Entwicklung von Trichobilharzia szidati n. sp. (Trematoda, Schisto-somatidae), einem Erreger von Dermatitis beim Menschen. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde. 1952; 15, 203-66.
Fraser SJ, Allan SJ, Roworth M, Smith HV, Holme SA. Cercarial dermatitis in the UK. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009; 34:344–6.
Brant SV, Loker ES. Molecular systematic of the avian schistosome genus Trichobilharzia (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in North America. J Parasitol. 2009; 95(4): 941–63.
Semyenova SK, Chrisanfova GG, Filippova EK, Beer SA, Voronin MV, Ryskov AP. Individual and population variation in cercariae of bird schis-tosomes of the Trichobilharzia ocellate species group as revealed with the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Genetika. 2005; 41(1):17-22.
Kolářová L, Horak P, Skırnisson K. Methodical approaches in the identification of areas with a potential risk of infection by bird schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. J Helminthol. 2010; 84 (3): 327-35.
Kolářová L, Rudolfová J, Hampl V, Skírnisson K. Allobilharzia visceralis gen. nov., sp. Nov. (Schisto-somatidae-Trematoda) from Cygnus cygnus (L.) (Anatidae). Parasitol Int. 2006; 55(3):179-86.
Dvořák J, Vanacová S, Hampl V, Flegr J, Horák P. Comparison of European Trichobilharzia species based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Parasitology. 2002; 124(Pt 3):307-13.
Ferté H, Depaquit J, Carré S, Villena I, Léger N. Presence of Trichobilharzia szidati in Lymnaea stagnalis and T. franki in Radix auricularia in northeastern France: molecular evidence. Parasitol Res. 2005; 95:150-4.
Rudolfová J, Hampl V, Bayssade-Dufour C, Lockyer AE, Littlewood D, Horák P. Validity re-assessment of Trichobilharzia species using Lymnaea stagnalis as the intermediate host. Parasitol Res. 2005; 95 (2): 79-89.
Brant SV. The occurrence of the avian schistosome Allobilharzia visceralis (Kolářová, Rudolfová, Hampl et Skírnisson, 2006) (Schistosomatidae) in the tundra swan, Cygnus columbianus (Anatidae), from North America. Folia Parasitol. 2007; 54: 99–104.
Aldhoun JA, Kolarova L, Horak P, Skirnisson K. Bird schistosome diversity in Iceland: molecular evidence. J Helminthol. 2009; 83: 173–80.
Athari A, Gohar-Dehi SH, Rostami M, Jalilian MD. Determination of definitive and intermediate hosts of cercarial dermatitis-producing agents in Northern Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2006; 9, 11-5.
Farahnak A, Essalat M. A study on cercarial der-matitis in Khuzestan province, south. BMC Public Health. 2003; 3:35-9.
Zbikowska E. Do larvae of Trichobilharzia szidati and Echinostoma revolutum generate behavioral fever in Lymnaea stagnalis individuals? Parasitol Res. 2005; 97: 68-72.
Korsunenko A, Chrisanfova G, Lopatkin A, Beer SA, Voronin M, Ryskov AP, Semyenova SK. Genetic differentiation of cercariae infrapopulations of the avian schistosome Trichobilharzia szidati based on RAPD markers and mitochondrial cox1 gene. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(2):833-41.
Cipriani P, Mattiucci S, Paoletti M, Scialanca F, Nascetti G. Molecular evidence of Trichobilharzia franki Müller and Kimmig, 1994 (Digenea: Schis-tosomatidae) in Radix auricularia from Central Italy. Parasitol Res. 2011; 109: 935-40.
Imani-Baran A, Yakhchali M, Malekzadeh-Viayeh R, Farhangpajuh F. Prevalence of cercariae infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) in North West of Iran. Vet Res Forum. 2011b; 2(2): 121-7.
Ito J. Contributions to the morphology of cercariae obtained from a snail host, Semisulcospira libertine in Japan. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1960; 13: 59–72.
Rind S. Three ocellate schistosome cercariae (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in Gyraulus corinna, with reference to Cercaria longicauda MacFarlane, 1944 in Lymnaea tomentosa. New Zeal J Zool. 1991; 18:53–62.
Kock S. Investigations of intermediate host speci-ficity help to elucidate the taxonomic status of Trichobilharzia ocellata (Digenea: Schistosomatidae). Parasitology. 2001; 123 (1): 67–70.
Mansoorian AB. A practical guidline for identification of Iranian freshwater snails. Iran J Public Health. 1986; 15(1-2), 41-54.
Pfleger V. A field guide in colour to molluscs. Aventinum Nakladatelstyi, S.T.O., Polygrafia, Prague, Czech Republic; 1999.
Faltynkova A, Nasincova V, Kablaskova L. Larval trematodes (digenea) of Planorbid snails (Gas-tropoda: Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification. Syst Parasitol. 2008; 69: 155–78.
Sambrook J, Russell DW. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3rd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, USA; 2002.
Caron Y, Rondelaud D, Losson B. The detection and quantification of a digenean infection in the snail host with special emphasis on Fasciola sp. Parasitol Res. 2008; 103: 735-44.
Sahba GH, Malek EA. Dermatitis caused by cer-cariae of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum in the Caspian Sea area of Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1979; 28:912-3.
Massoud J, Arfaa F, Farahmandian I, Ardalan A, Mansoorian A. Progress in national schistosomia-sis control program in Iran. Bull World Health Organ. 1982; 60:577-82.
Karamian M, Aldhoun JA, Maraghi S, Hatam G, Farhangmehr B, Sadjadi SM. Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Mela-noides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis. Parasitol Res. 2011; 108(4): 955-62.
Loy C, Haas W. Prevalence of cercariae from Lymnaea stagnalis snails in a pond system in southern Germany. Parasitol Res. 2001; 87:878–82.
Imani-Baran A, Yakhchali M, Malekzadeh-Viayeh R. A study on the geographical distribution and diversity of Lymnaeidae snails in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. Journal of Pajouhesh va Sazandegi. 2011a; 82(4): 53-63. (In Persian with English abstract)
Mas-Coma S, Valero MA, Bargues MD. Climate change effects on trematodiases, with emphasis on zoonotic fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. Vet Parasitol. 2009; 163: 264–80.