Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article
Backgrund:Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regard-ing both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in envi-ronmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acan-thamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic kerati-tis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.
Methods:We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.
Results:According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 geno-type is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in sev-eral regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acan-thamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.
Conclusion:Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.
Cabral FM, Cabral G. Acanthamoeba spp. as Agents of Disease in Humans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(2):273-307.
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS. Free-living amoe-bae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Int J Para-sitol. 2004;34(9):1001-27.
Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL. Patho-genic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;50(1):1-26.
Lorenzo-Morales J, Miranda CA, Jimenez C, Tejedor ML, Valladares B, Ortega-Rivas A. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba isolates from envi-ronmental sources in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):233-6.
M Rahdar, M Niyyati, M Salehi, M Feghhi, M Makvandi, M Pourmehdi, S Farnia. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Environmental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran. Iran J Par-asitol. 2012;7(4):22-6.
R T Cursons,T J Brown,E A Keys,K M Mori-arty, andD Till. Immunity to pathogenic free-living amoebae: role of cell-mediated immunity. Infect Immun. 1980;29(2):408-10.
Kiderlen AF, Laube U, Radam E & Tata PS. Oral infection of immunocompetent and im-munodeficient mice with Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. Parasitol Res. 2007;100(4):775-82.
Visvesvara GS, Hercules Moura & Schuster FL (2007) Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandril-laris, Naegleria fowleri and Sappinia diploidea. Im-munol Med Microbiol. 2007;50(1):1-26.
Kamel AG, Faridah H, Yusof S, Norazah A, Nakisah MA. A case of trauma related Acan-thamoeba keratitis. Trop Biomed. 2004; 21(2):135-8.
Niyyati M, Rezaie S, Rahimi F, Mohebali M, Maghsood AH, Farnia SH, Rezaeian M. Mo-lecular Characterization and Sequencing of a Gene Encoding Mannose Binding Protein in an Iranian isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii as a Major Agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Iran J Public Health. 2008;37(2):9-14.
Niyyati M, Rezaei S, Babaie Z, Rezaeian M. Molecular identification and sequencing of Mannose Binding Protein gene of an Iranian isolate of Acanthamoeba palestinensis. Iran J Para-sitol. 2010;5(1):1-5.
Panjawani N, Marchant J, Cubillose I , Garate M. Biochemical characterization and functional studies of Acanthamoeba mannose-binding pro-tein. Infect Immunol. 2005;73(9):5775-81.
Magnet A, Henriques-Gil N, Galván-Diaz AL, Izquiedo F, Fenoy S, del Aguila C. Novel Acan-thamoeba18S rRNA gene sequence type from an environmental isolate. Parasitol Res. 2014; 113(8):2845-50.
Schroeder JM, Booton GC, Hay J, Niszl IA, Seal DV, Markus MB, Fuerst PA, Byers Tj. Use of subgenic 18S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing for genus and genotype identifica-tion of Acanthamoebae from humans with kerati-tis and from sewage sludge. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(5):1903-11.
Rezaeian M, Niyyati M. Pathogenic free-living amoeba in humans. Tehran University of medical Sciences Publication, Tehran, Iran. 2009.
Rezaeian M, Niyyati M, Farnai Sh, Rahimi F & Motevalli haghi A. Isolation of Acanthamoeba Spp. from Different Environmental Sources. Iran J of Parasitol. 2008; 3: 44-47.
Niyyati M, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales b et al. Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolates from clin-ical and environmental specimens in Iran. Exp Parasitol. 2009: 121; 242–245.
Nazar M, Haghighi A, Niyyati M, Eftekhar M, Tahvildar-Biderouni F, Taghipour N, Abadi A, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E, Athari A. Geno-typing of Acanthamoeba isolated from water in recreational areas of Tehran, Iran. J Water Health. 2011;9(3):603-8.
Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z, Nazar M, Haghighi A, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E. Screening of-recreational areas of rivers for potentially path-ogenic free-living amoebae in the suburbs of Tehran, Iran. J Water Health.2012;10(1):140-6.
Solgi R, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Taghipour N, Tabaei SJ, Eftekhar M, Nazemalhosseini Mo-jarad E. Thermotolerant Acanthamoeba spp. iso-lated from therapeutic hot springs in North-western Iran. J Water Health. 2012; 10(4):650-6.
Solgi R, Niyyati M, Haghighi A,, Nazemalhos-seini Mojarad E. Occurrence of thermotolerant Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria spp. in hot springs of Ardebil province, Iran. Iran J Parasi-tol. 2012; 6(2): 47-52.
Badirzadeh A, Niyyati M, Babaei Z, Amini H, Badirzadeh H, Rezaeian M. Isolation of Free-
Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2011; 6 (2):1-8.
Mirjalali H, Niyyati M, Abed Khojasteh H, Babaei Z, Sharifdini H, Rezaeian M. Acan-thamoeba T4 genotype: in vivo and in vitro pathogenicity survey. Iran J Parasitol. 2013: 8 (4): 530-5.
Lasjerdi Z, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Shahabi S, Biderouni FT, Taghipour N, Eftekhar M, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E. Potentially path-ogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hos-pital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran. Parasitol Res.2011;109(3):575-80.
Rezaeian M, Farnia Sh, Niyyati M, Rahimi F (2007) Amoebic keratitis in Iran (1997- 2007). Iran J Parasitol. 2007;3(2):1-6.
Dudley R, Matin A, Alsam S, Sissons J, Maghsood AH & Khan NA (2005) Acan-thamoeba isolates belonging to T1, T2, T3, T4 but not T7 encyst in response to increased os-molarity and cysts do not bind to human cor-neal epithelial cells. Acta Trop. 2005;95(2):100-8.
Niyyati M, Rahmani F, Lasjerdi Z, Rezaeian M. Potentially Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae in Contact Lenses of the Asymptomatic Contact Lens Wearers. Iran J Parasitol. 2014;14-19.
Memari F, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Seyyed Ta-baei SJ, Lasjerdi Z.Occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes in nasal swabs of can-cer patients in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2015;114(5):1907-12
Abedkhojasteh H, Niyyati M, Rezaei S, Mohe-bali M, Farnia S, Kazemi-Rad E, Roozafzoon R, Sianati H, Rezaeian M, Heidari M. Identify-ing differentially expressed genes in trophozo-ites and cysts of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype: Implications for developing new treatments for Acanthamoeba keratitis. Eur J Protist. 2015 doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2014.10.001
Niyyati M, Lasgerdi Z, Lorenzo-Morales J. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran. Microbiol Insights. 2015;9:8(Suppl 1):1-6
|Issue||Vol 10 No 2 (2015)|
|Acanthamoeba keratitis Acanthamoeba spp. Encephalitis Genotypes Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|