Original Article

In Vitro Activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Main Essential Oil Component Trans-Anethole on Trichomonas vaginalis


Background: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infections worldwide which drug-resistant cases of the infection are rising. The aim of the study was to assessment the in vitro activity of Foeniculum vulgare and its main essential oil component on Trichomonas vaginalis. Also phytochemical investigation of F. vulgare essential oil was performed.

Methods: Five T. vaginalis isolates subjected to susceptibility testing against essential oil and extracts of F. vulgare and anethole using microtiter plate method. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of the natural products was assessed in comparison with metronidazole. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector was applied for chemical investigation of the essential oil.

Results: After 48 hours incubation, the most potent antitrichomonal agents were the methanolic and hexanic extract with MLC of 360 µg/ml and followed by the essential oil and anethole (1600 µg/ml). The isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a mean MLC of 13.7 µg/ml. E-Anethole (88.41 %) was the major constituent of F. vulgare essential oil.

Conclusion: The results suggested in vitro antiprotozoal properties of F. vulgare and anethole against T. vaginalis. Therefore further studies are needed to evaluate their in vivo effects and toxicity.

1. Schwebke JR, Burgess D. Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17(4):794-803.
2. World Health Organization. Global inci-dence and prevalence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections—2008. WHO. Geneva; 2012. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/rtis/stisestimates/en/
3. Kissinger P, Adamski A. Trichomoniasis and HIV interactions: a review. Sex Transm Infect. 2013; 89(6):426-33.
4. Robinson SC. Trichomonal vaginitis re-sistant to metronidazole. Can Med Assoc J. 1962; 86(14):665.
5. Dunne RL, Dunn LA, Upcroft P, O'Donoghue PJ, Upcroft JA. Drug re-sistance in the sexually transmitted proto-zoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Cell Res. 2003; 13(4):239-49.
6. Schmid G, Narcisi E, Mosure D, Secor WE, Higgins J, Moreno H. Prevalence of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in a gynecology clinic. J Reprod Med. 2001; 46(6):545-9.
7. Workowski KA, Berman SM. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(suppl.3):S59-S63.
8. He W, Huang B. A review of chemistry and bioactivities of a medicinal spice: Foe-niculum vulgare. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011; 5(16):3595-600.
9. Badgujar SB, Patel VV, Bandivdekar AH. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology. BioMed Res Int. 2014; 2014.
10. Zeng H, Chen X, Liang J. In vitro anti-fungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species. J Med Microbiol. 2015; 64(Pt 1):93-103.
11. Kwon YS, Choi WG, Kim WJ, et al. An-timicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare. Arch Pharm Res. 2002; 25(2):154-7.
12. Mahmoudi H, Arabestani MR, Molavi M, shirzadi karamolah K, Zare Fahim N. The Study Effects Antimicrobial of Foeniculum vulgare mill and Achilles mille folium Plant on Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infections and Nosocomial Infection. In-ternational Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2016; 8(9):1549-54.
13. Huang Y, Zhao J, Zhou L, et al. Antifun-gal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium verum Fruit and Its Main Component trans-Anethole. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):7558-69.
14. Sleha R, Mosio P, Vydrzalova M, Jan-tovska A, Bostikova V, Mazurova J. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clini-cal isolates. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2014; 158(2):208-11.
15. Abdali E, Javadi S, Akhgari M, Hosseini S, Dastan D. Chemical composition and bio-logical properties of Satureja avromanica Maroofi. J Food Sci Technol. 2017; 54(3):727-34.
16. Dastan D, Salehi P, Maroofi H. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobi-al activities on Laserpitium carduchorum Hedge & Lamond essential Oil and ex-tracts during various growing stages. Chem Biodivers. 2016; 13(10):1397-403.
17. Matini M, Maghsood AH, Mohebali M, Rabiee S, Fallah M, Rezaie S. In vitro sus-ceptibility of Iranian isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole. Iran J Parasitol. 2016; 11(1):46-51.
18. Schwebke JR, Barrientes FJ. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antimi-crob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(12):4209-10.
19. El-Fattah Ahmad Mahmoud MB, Abdel-Kader Aminou HB, Ahmed Hashem H. Are the fatty acids responsible for the higher effect of oil and alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa over its aqueous extract on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites? J Parasit Dis. 2016; 40(1):22–31.
20. Mehriardestani M, Aliahmadi A, Toliat T, Rahimi R. Medicinal plants and their iso-lated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 88:885-93.
21. Jiménez-Arellanes A, Luna-Herrera J, Ruiz-Nicolás R, Cornejo-Garrido J, Tapia A, Yépez-Mulia L. Antiprotozoal and antimy-cobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13:109.
22. Taran M, Rezaeian M, Izaddoost M. In vitro antitrichomonas activity of Allium hir-tifolium (Persian Shallot) in comparison with metronidazole. Iran J Public Health. 2006; 35(1):92-4.
23. Mikaili P, Maadirad S, Moloudizargari M, Aghajanshakeri S, Sarahroodi S. Therapeu-tic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013; 16(10):1031-48.
24. Ezz Eldin HM, Badawy AF. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil. J Parasit Dis. 2015; 39(3):465-73.
25. Damke E, Tsuzuki JK, Chassot F, et al. Spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas vaginalis ac-tivity of Brazilian Sapindus saponaria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13:196.
26. Brandelli CL, Vieira Pde B, Macedo AJ, Tasca T. Remarkable anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:826370.
27. Kashan ZF, Arbabi M, Delavari M, Hooshyar H, Taghizadeh M, Joneydy Z. Effect of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract on induction of apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. Infect Disord Drug Tar-gets. 2015; 15(2):125-30.
28. Youse HA, Kazemian A, Sereshti M, et al. Effect of Echinophora platyloba, Stachys la-vandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants on Trichomonas vaginalis growth in vitro. Adv Biomed Res. 2012; 1:79.
29. Dahab MM, Koko WS, Osman EE. In vitro antitrichomonal activity of Xanthium brasilicum Vell and Argemone mexicana L. dif-ferent extracts. J Med Plants Res. 2011; 5;151–5.
30. He W, Van Puyvelde L, Maes L, Bosse-laers J, De Kimpe N. Antitrichomonas in vitro activity of Cussonia holstii Engl. Nat Prod Res. 2003; 17(2):127-33.
IssueVol 14 No 4 (2019) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v14i4.2106
Anethole Essential oil Extract Foeniculum vulgare Trichomonas vaginalis

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
KARAMI F, DASTAN D, FALLAH M, MATINI M. In Vitro Activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Main Essential Oil Component Trans-Anethole on Trichomonas vaginalis. Iran J Parasitol. 2019;14(4):631-638.