Monarch-1 Activation in Murine Macrophage Cell Line (J774 A.1) Infected with Iranian Strain of Leishmania major.
AbstractBackground: Leishmania major is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the bite of the female phlebotomine sand flies. Leishmania major is able to escape the host immune defense and survive within macrophages. Modulation of the NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) activation and suppression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by L. major are the main evasion mechanisms that remain to be explored. This study aims to examine the expression level of the Monarch-1 in L. major-infected macrophages, as a negative regulator of the NF-κB activation. Methods: Murine macrophage cell line (J774 A.1) was infected by metacyclic form of Leishmania promastigotes at macrophage/parasite ratio of 1:10. After harvesting infected cells at different times, total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed for Monarch-1 by specific primers. Hypoxanthine Phospho-Ribosyl Transferase (HPRT) was used as an internal control to adjust the amount of mRNA in each sample. Results: Semiquantitive analysis of Monarch-1 mRNA expression level showed a significant expres-sion increase within 6 to 30 hours after L. major infection of macrophages when compared to the control macrophages. Conclusion: Monarch-1 expression level reveals a significant increase in the early phase of macro-phage infection with L. major, which in turn may suppress IL-12 production in Leishmania infected macrophages and deeply influence the relationship between host and parasite.
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