Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.
AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Methods: Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps.They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in then rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.Results: After recognition of the helminthes’ types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5%) were female and 18(15%) were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33%) of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16%) were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5%) was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16%) was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%), Heterakis spumosa (17.5%), Hymenolepisdiminuta (7.5%) and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%). The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.Conclusion: The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.
Parshad VR. Rodent control in India. Integrative Pest Management Review.1999; 4: 97-126.
Meehan AP. Rat and Mice, their Biology and Control. The Rentokil library: Brown Knight & Truscott Ltd; 1984.
Singla LD, Singla N, Parshad VR, Juyla PD, Sood NK. Rodents as reservoirs of parasites in India. Integr Zool. 2008; 3: 21-26.
Durden LA, Hu R, Oliver JH. Rodents’ ectoparasites from two locations in northwestern Florida. Vec Ecol. 2000; 25: 222-228.
Malsawmtluangi, C, Tandon, V. Helminth parasite spectrum in rodent hosts from bamboo growing areas of Mizoram, northeast India. J Parasitol Dis. 2009; 33(1-2): 28-35.
Seong JK, Huh S, Lee JS. Helminthes in R. norvegicus captured in Chunchon, Korea. The Korean J Parasitol. 1995; 33 (3): 235-237.
Kia EB, Shahryary-Rad E, Mohebali M, Mahmoudi M, Mobedi I, Zahabiun F, Zarei Z, Miahipoor A, Mowlavi Gh, Vatandoost H. Endoparasites of rodents and their zoonotic importance in Germi, Dashte-Moghan, Ardabil Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2010; 5 (4): 15-20.
Kia EB, Homayouni M, Farahnak A, Mohebali M, Shojai S. Study of Endoparasites of Rodents and their Zoonotic Importance in Ahwaz, South West Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2001; 30(1-2): 49-52.
Jawdat SZ, Mahmoud SN. The incidence of Cestoidean and Acanthocephalan parasites of some rodents in Iraq. Bull L Nat Hist Res Centre. 1980; 7(4): 55-71.
Molavi Gh R. Study of Helminth infection of Rattus in Tehran, Iran [MSPH thesis]. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 1991.
Shahriari E. Study of zoonotic Helminth infections of Rodents in Dasht e Moghan, Iran. [MSPH Thesis]. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2007.
Hassanpour H. Study of Helminth infection of Rodents in Bandar Abbas, Iran [MSPH Thesis]. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2008.
Homayoni M H. Study of Helminth parasite of Rodents in Ahwaz, Iran [MSPH Thesis]. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2000.
Ghadirian E, Arfaa A. Human infection with Hymenolepis diminuta in villages of Minab, South Iran. Int J Parasitol. 1972; 2(4): 481-482.
Fasihi-Harandi M. Study on the fauna of parasites of wild rodents in northern Isfahan [MSPH Thesis]. School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 1992.
Farahnak A, Mobedi I, Mohamadi F. Study of zoonotic helminth of carnivores in Khozestan, Iran. Iran J Public Health.1998; 27(3-4): 15-20.
Sadjjadi SM, Massoud J. Helminth parasites of wild rodents in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. J Vet Parasitol. 1999; 13: 55-60.
Mohebali M, Rezaei H, Faranak A. A survey on parasitic fauna (helminthes and ectoparasites) of rodents in Meshkin Shahr district, northenwest Iran. J Fac Vet Med Med Univ Tehran. 1997; 52(3): 23-25.
Etemad E. Mammals of Iran. Vol I: Rodents and key to their identification; National Society of Natural Source and Human Environment Protection Publication. Tehran; 1978.
Eslami A. Veterinary Helminthology (2nded.). Vol.II Cestoda, Vol III Nematoda and Acanthocephala Tehran University Publications; 1997.
Paramasvaran S, Sani RA, Hassan L, Hanjeet K, Krishnasamy M, John J, Santhana R, Sumarni MG, Lim KH. Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications. Trop Biomed. 2009; 26(1): 67-72.
Yamaguti S. Systema Helminthum (1sted.). Vol I-IV. INC New York: Interscience Publishers; 1963.
Morand, S. Biodiversity of parasites in relation with their life cycle. In: (Eds .M .Hochberg, J. Clobert and R .Barbault) the genesis and maintenance of biological diversity. Oxford; Oxford University Press; (1996).
Rokni MB. The present status of human helminthic diseases in Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008; 102: 283-295.
Chechulin AI, Karpenko SV, Panov VV. Ecology of Hepaticola hepatica infection in rodents in southern west Siberia. Contem Prob Ecol. 2011; 4(4): 423-427.
Reperant LA, Deplazes P. Cluster of Capillaria hepatica infections in non-commensal rodents from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Prasitol Res. 2005; 96: 340-342.
Mafiana CF, Osho MB, Sam-Wobo S. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the black rat (R.rattus) in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria. J Helminthol. 1997; 71: 217-220.
Calveria FG, Causapin J, De Guzman MA, Toledo MG, Salibay C. Parasite biodiversity in Rattus spp. Caught in wet markets. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005; 36: 146-148.
Milazzo C, Cagnin M, Dibella C, Geraci F, Ribas A. Helminth Fauna of Commensal Rodents, Musmusculus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Rodentia,Muridae) in Sicily (Italy). Ibero – Latinoam. Parasitol. 2010; 69(2): 194-198.
Muznebin F, Khanum H, Nessa Z, Islam D. Endoparasitic Infection in laboratory Rat strain, Long – Evas (R. norvegicus , Berkenhout ). Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res. 2009; 44(1): 109-116.
Spatafora GA, Platt TR. Survey of the helminth parasites of the rat, R. norvegicus, from Maymont Park, Richmond, Virginia. Virg. J. Sci. 1982; 32: 3-6.
Huq MM, Karimi MJ, Sheikh H. Helminth Parasites of rats, house mice and moles in Bangladesh. Pak Vet Sci. 1985; 5(3): 55-71.
Khanum H, Arefin N. Helminth burden in laboratory mice, M. musculus. Bangladesh J Zool. 2005; 33:117-123.
Pakdel N, Naem S, Rezaei F, Chalehchaleh AA. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (M.musculus) and rats (R.norvegicus and R. rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran. Vet Res Forum. 2013; 4(2): 105-109.