Canine Heartworm in Southeastern of Iran with Review of disease distribution.
AbstractBackground: Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is mosquito-borne filarial nematode capable of causing serious cardiopulmonary disease in canines and felines, and pulmonary dirofilariasis in man. This research was conducted with the objectives of determining the incidence and assessing possible risk factors of canine heartworm in the southeast of Iran.Methods: From October 2012 to September 2013, blood samples from 87 dogs from Zabol area in Sistan and Baluchestan and 33 dogs from Bam area in Kerman Province were examined for detection of Dirofilaria immitis using modified knott test and serology.Results: Out of 120 dogs, 29 (24.2%; 95%CI: 16.6-31.8%) were positive, serologically.The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dog in Zabol and Bam was 27.5%(95% CI: 24.7-32.5%) and 15.15% (95% CI: 12.3-20.7%), respectively. 28.8% of stray dogs and 20.6% of housed dogs in the study areas were seropositive. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was not significantly different between stray and housed dogs (P=0.295). Investigation of seasonal dynamic of infection with D. immitis in stray and housed dog showed that the proportion of infected dog in spring and summer was greater than colder season (autumn and winter) which was not significant.The prevalence of infection with D. immitis in >5 years old stray dogs (53.8%)was greater than other age categories while in housed dogs infection rate was greater in 3-5 years old (27.3%) .Conclusion: It is important to point out the increased incidence of canine heatrworm in Iran. In order to stop the spread of canine heartworm, preventive measures must be taken now.
Simo´n F, Genchi C. Dirofilariosis and other zoonotic filarioses: An emerging public health problem in developed countries. Res Rew Parasitol. 2000; 60, 1–16.
McCall JW. Heartworm disease in animals and humans. Adv Parasitol.2008; 66, 193–285.
Genchi C. Is heartworm disease really spreading in Europe? Vet Parasitol.2005; 133, 137–148.
Simo´n F. What is happening outside North America regarding human dirofilariasis? Vet Parasitol. 2005; 132, 181–189.
Simon F, Morcho R, Gonza´ lez-Miguel J, Marcos-Atxutegi C, Lucas MS. What is new about animal and human dirofilariosis? Trends in Parasitol. 2009; 25 (9):404-409.
Sadighian A. Helminth Parasites of stray dog and Jackal in Shahsavar area, Caspian region, Iran. J Helminthol.1969; 2:372-374.
Jafari S, Gaur SNS, Khaksar Z . Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs of Fars province of Iran. J Appl Anim Res.1996; 9:27–31
Bokaie S, Mobed, I, Mohebali M, Hoseini SH, Nadim A . A study of dirofilariasis prevalence in dogs in Meshkin- Shahr area, northwest Iran. J Fac Vet Med., 1998; 53: 23-26 (in Persian with English abst.).
Meshgi B, Eslami A. Study on filariasis of sheepdogs around of Tehran. J Fac Vet Med Tehran Univ. 2001; 55:53–56.
Meshgi B, Eslami A, Ashrafi Helan J. Epidemiological survey of blood filariae in rural and urban dogs of Tabriz. J Fac Vet Med Tehran Univ. 2002; 57:59–63 (in Persian).
Ranjbar-Bahadori SH ,Hekmatkhah A. A study on filariosis of stray dogs in Garmsar, Iran. J Vet Res.2007; 62:83-86.
Razi Jalali MH, Alborzi A, Avizeh R , Mosallanejad B . A study on Dirofilaria immitis in healthy urban dogs from Ahvaz, Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 2010; 11: 357-362.
Akhtardanesh B, Radfar MH, Voosough D, Darijani D. Seroprevalence of canine heartworm disease in Kerman, southeastern Iran. Comp Clin Pathol. 2011; 20:573–577
Ranjbar-Bahadori SH, Veshgini A, Shirani D, Eslami A, Mohieddin H, Shemshadi B, Masooleh R. Epidemiological Aspects of Canine Dirofilariasis in the North of Iran .Iran J Parasitol. 2010 (6); 73-80.
Malmasi A, Hosseini S H, Aramoon M, Bahonar A, Seifi H A, Survey of canine Dirofilaria immitis infection in Caspian provinces of Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 2011; 12(4), 340-344.
Javadi SH, Hanifeh M, Tavassoli M, Dalir- Naghadeh B, Khezri A, Hadian M. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan- Iran. Vet Res Forum.2011; 2(1):53-57.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoubi Ershadi MR, Javadian E, Moubedi I, Abai MR. Review of Dirofilariasis in Iran. J Med Fac Guilan Univ Med Sci. 2006; 15(60), 102–113.
Razmi Gh. Study on situation of infection to dogs of Mashhad to types of filaria. J Fac Vet Med Tehran Univ. 1999; 54(1): 5-7 (in Persian).
Theis JH. Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 133, 157–180.
Pampiglione S. Dirofilarial human cases in the Old World, attributed to Dirofilaria immitis: a critical analysis. Histopathol. 2009; 54, 192–204.
Fok E. The importance of dirofilariosis in carnivores and humans in Hungary, past and present. In ‘‘Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in dog and cat and human infections’’ (C. Genchi, L. Rinaldi, and G. Cringoli, eds.), 2007, pp. 181–188. Rolando Editore, Napoli, Italy.
Ashrafi K, Golchai J, Geranmayeh S. Human Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria(Nochtiella) repens: Clinically Suspected as Cutaneous Fascioliasis. Iran J Public Health. 2010; 39(1):105-9
Jamshidi A ,Jamshidi M, Mobedi I, Khosroara M. Periocular dirofilariasis in a young woman: a case report. Korean J Parasitol. 2008; 46(4):265-7.
Negahban S, Daneshbod Y, Atefi S, Daneshbod K, Sadjjadi SM, Hosseini SV, Bedayat GR, Abidi H. Dirofilaria repens diagnosed by the presence of microfilariae in fine needle aspirates: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2007; 51(4):567-70.
Tavakolizadeh S, Mobedi I. Orbital dirofilariasis in Iran: a case report. Korean J Parasitol. 2009; 47(4):397-9.
Bowman, DD. Georgis’ parasitology for veterinarians. 9th ed, St. Louis, Saunders, Elsevier. 2009, PP: 318-319.
Genchi C. Epidemiology and prevention of Dirofilaria infections in dogs and cats. In Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dog and cat and human infections (Genchi, C., Rinaldi, L. and Cringoli, G. eds), 2007; pp. 145–161.
Reifur L, Thomaz-Soccol V, Montiani- Ferreira F. Epidemiological aspects of filariosis in dogs on the coast of Parana state, Brazil: with emphasis on Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 122:273-286.
Simsek S,Utuk AE, Koroglu E , Rishniw M . Serological and molecular studies on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Turkey. J Helminthol. 2008; 82: 181-186.
Fortin J F, Slocombe J O D. Temperature requirements for the development of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes triseriatus and Ae. vexans. Mosq. News. 1981; 41:625–633.
Lee AC1, Bowman DD, Lucio-Forster A, Beall MJ, Liotta JL, Dillon R. Evaluation of a new inclinic method for the detection of canine heartworm antigen. Vet Parasitol. 2011 ;177(3-4):387-91.
Morchon R, Bargues MD, Latorre JM, Melero-Alcibar R, Pou-Barreto C, Mas-Coma S, Simon F.. Culex pipiens is a natural vector of Dirofilaria
immitis in an endemic area of Western Spain. Vect Born Zoon Dis. 2007;7, 653–658.