Comprehensive Study of Phenotypic and Growth Rate Features of Blastocystis Subtypes 1-3 and 6 in Symptomatic and Asymp-tomatic Subjects
AbstractBackground: The present study aimed to assess the grouping of subtypes 1-3 and 6 of Blastocystis according to the size and generation time of the parasite among the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Blastocystis subtypes1-3 and 6 isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and were cultivated in DMEM medium. In order to assess inter- and intra-subtype variation in size, all the isolates were measured using morphometric criteria. Generation time was calculated using approximately 1×104 Blastocystis, which were cultivated in DMEM, every 24h for 4 days. Results: All subtypes had 5 to 185 μm diameter range. The smallest size was attributed to ST1, followed by ST6 and ST2. ST3 showed the most variable size and phenotypes compared with the other three subtypes. Furthermore, amoeboid forms and parasite clumping were only seen in ST3-S (symptomatic subjects). Generation time analysis showed that the number of ST1 isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects peaked higher than the other subtypes. Conclusion: This is the first study discussing inter-intra-size, phenotype and generation time variations among 4 common subtypes of Blastocystis. Accordingly, ST3 was largest subtype and showed most diversities in both size and phenotype, while ST1 was smallest subtype with lowest intra-subtype variation.
Alfellani MA, Stensvold CR, Vidal-Lapiedra A, Onuoha ESU, Fagbenro-Beyioku AF, Clark CG. Variable geographic distribution of Blastocystis subtypes and its potential implications. Acta Trop. 2013;126(1):11-8.
Salinas JL, Vildozola Gonzales H. [Infection by Blastocystis: a review]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2007;27(3):264-74.
Salinas JL. Current status of Blastocystis terminology. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51 (2):117-8.
Tan KS, Mirza H, Teo JD, Wu B, Macary PA. Current Views on the Clinical Relevance of Blastocystis spp. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2010;12(1):28-35.
Clark CG, van der Giezen M, Alfellani MA, Stensvold CR. Recent developments in Blastocystis research. Adv Parasitol. 2013;82:1-32.
Mohamed RT, El-Bali MA, Mohamed AA, Abdel-Fatah MA, El-Malky MA, Mowafy NM, et al. Subtyping of Blastocystis sp. isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Parasite Vectors. 2017;10(1):174.
Yoshikawa H, Yoshida K, Nakajima A, Yamanari K, Iwatani S, Kimata I. Fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form of Blastocystis hominis in rats. Parasitol Res. 2004;94(6):391-6.
Leelayoova S, Siripattanapipong S, Thathaisong U, Naaglor T, Taamasri P, Piyaraj P, et al. Drinking water: a possible source of Blastocystis spp. subtype 1 infection in schoolchildren of a rural community in central Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(3):401-6.
Tan KS. New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(4):639-65.
Stensvold C, Arendrup M, Nielsen H, Mølbak K. Blastocystis--an enigmatic parasite. Ugeskr laeger. 2009;171(34):2388-90.
Boreham PF, Stenzel DJ. Blastocystis in humans and animals: morphology, biology, and epizootiology. Adv Parasitol. 1993;32:1-70.
Menounos PG, Spanakos G, Tegos N, Vassalos CM, Papadopoulou C, Vakalis NC. Direct detection of Blastocystis sp. in human faecal samples and subtype assignment using single strand conformational polymorphism and sequencing. Mol Cel Prob. 2008;22(1):24-9.
Parija SC, Jeremiah S. Blastocystis: taxonomy, biology and virulence. Trop Parasitol. 2013;3(1):17.
Tan T, Suresh K. Predominance of amoeboid forms of Blastocystis hominis in isolates from symptomatic patients. Parasitol Res. 2006;98(3):189-93.
Suresh K, Smith H. Comparison of methods for detecting Blastocystis hominis. Europ J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;23(6):509-11.
Zaman V, Khan K. A concentration technique for obtaining viable cysts of Blastocystis hominis from faeces. J Pak Med Assoc. 1994;44:220.
Moe K, Singh M, Howe J, Ho L, Tan S, Chen X, et al. Development of Blastocystis hominis cysts into vacuolar forms in vitro. Parasitol Res. 1999;85(2):103-8.
Windsor J, Macfarlane L, Hughes-Thapa G, Jones S, Whiteside T. Incidence of Blastocystis hominis in faecal samples submitted for routine microbiological analysis. Brit J Biomed Sci. 2002;59(3):154-7.
Motazedian H, Ghasemi H, Sadjjadi S. Genomic diversity of Blastocystis hominis from patients in southern Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102(1):85-8.
Vargas-Sanchez G-B, Romero-Valdovinos M, Ramirez-Guerrero C, Vargas-Hernandez I, Ramirez-Miranda ME, Martinez-Ocaña J, et al. Blastocystis isolates from patients with irritable bowel syndrome and from asymptomatic carriers exhibit similar parasitological loads, but significantly different generation times and genetic variability across multiple subtypes. PloS one. 2015;10(4):e0124006.
Alinaghizade A, Mirjalali H, Mohebali M, Stensvold CR, Rezaeian M. Inter- and intra-subtype variation of Blastocystis subtypes isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic patients in Iran. Infect, Gene Evol : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases. 2017;50:77-82.
Domínguez-Márquez MV, Guna R, Muñoz C, Gómez-Muñoz MT, Borrás R. High prevalence of subtype 4 among isolates of Blastocystis hominis from symptomatic patients of a health district of Valencia (Spain). Parasitol Res. 2009;105(4):949.
Özyurt M, Kurt Ö, Mølbak K, Nielsen HV, Haznedaroglu T, Stensvold CR. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis infections in Turkey. Parasitol Inter. 2008;57(3):300-6.
Stensvold CR, Christiansen DB, Olsen KEP, Nielsen HV. Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 is common in Danish Blastocystis-positive patients presenting with acute diarrhea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84(6):883-5.
Rezaei Riabi T, Haghighi A, Mirjalali H, Mohammad Ali Gol S, Karamati SA, Ghasemian M, et al. Study of prevalence, distribution and clinical significance of Blastocystis isolated from two medical centers in Iran. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2017;10(Suppl1):S102-S7.
Katsarou-Katsari A, Vassalos CM, Tzanetou K, Spanakos G, Papadopoulou C, Vakalis N. Acute urticaria associated with amoeboid forms of Blastocystis sp. subtype 3. Acta Derm Venereol. 2008;88(1):80-1.
Riabi TR, Mirjalali H, Haghighi A, Nejad MR, Pourhoseingholi MA, Poirier P, et al. Genetic diversity analysis of Blastocystis subtypes from both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects using a barcoding region from the 18S rRNA gene. Infect Genet Evol. 2018; 61: 119-126.
Tan T, Suresh K, Smith H. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Blastocystis hominis isolates implicates subtype 3 as a subtype with pathogenic potential. Parasitol Res. 2008;104(1):85.
Ragavan ND, Govind SK, Chye TT, Mahadeva S. Phenotypic variation in Blastocystis sp. ST3. Parasite Vector. 2014;7(1):404.
Yan Y, Su S, Lai R, Liao H, Ye J, Li X, et al. Genetic variability of Blastocystis hominis isolates in China. Parasitol Res. 2006;99(5):597-601.
Al FD, Hökelek M. Is Blastocystis hominis an opportunist agent? Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007;31(1):28-36.
Stensvold C, Lewis H, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Nielsen S, Olsen K, et al. Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(11):1655-63.
Chan KH, Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR. Effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates of Blastocystis hominis on colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116. Parasitol Res. 2012;110(6):2475-80.
Clark CG. Extensive genetic diversity in Blastocystis hominis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997;87(1):79-83.
Hameed DMA, Hassanin OM, Zuel-Fakkar NM. Association of Blastocystis hominis genetic subtypes with urticaria. Parasitol Res. 2011;108(3):553-60.
Ramírez JD, Sánchez LV, Bautista DC, Corredor AF, Flórez AC, Stensvold CR. Blastocystis subtypes detected in humans and animals from Colombia. Infect Gene Evol. 2014;22:223-8.
El Safadi D, Meloni D, Poirier P, Osman M, Cian A, Gaayeb L, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in Lebanon and correlation between subtype 1 and gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88(6):1203-6.
Jones MS, Whipps CM, Ganac RD, Hudson NR, Boorom K. Association of Blastocystis subtype 3 and 1 with patients from an Oregon community presenting with chronic gastrointestinal illness. Parasitol Res. 2009;104(2):341-5.