Molecular Evaluation of a Case of Fasciola hepatica in Wild Boar in Southwestern Iran: A Case Report
AbstractWild boars may be infected with several zoonotic parasitic infections including Fasciola spp. We reported a case of Fasciola infection in a wild boar in Bushehr Province in southwestern Iran. The sample was isolated from the liver of a hunted wild boar. A few of adult worms were fixed and stained. DNA was extracted from apical and lateral parts of the worms and PCR amplified, targeting NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrion genes. Although the worm was quite long and looked much similar to F. gigantica, sequencing and analysis of PCR products of nad1 and cox1 genes revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with F. hepatica. This is the first report of molecular evaluation of Fasciola spp. from wild boar in Iran.
Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD, Valero MA. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35(11-12):1255-78.
Mas-Coma S, Valero MA, Bargues MD. Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control. Adv Parasitol. 2009;69:41-146.
Sarkari B, Ghobakhloo N, Moshfea A, Eilami O. Seroprevalence of human fasciolosis in a new-emerging focus of fasciolosis in Yasuj district, southwest of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7(2):15-20.
Ashrafi K, Saadat F, O'Neill S et al. The endemicity of human fascioliasis in Guilan Province, northern Iran: the baseline for implementation of control strategies. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(4):501-11.
Hosseini G, Sarkari B, Moshfe A, Motazedian MH, Abdolahi Khabisi S. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal helminthes in rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad Township, southwest Iran; A population based study. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(11):1520-5.
Ashrafi K, Valero MA, Panova M, Periago MV, Massoud J, Mas-Coma S. Phenotypic analysis of adults of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and intermediate forms from the endemic region of Gilan, Iran. Parasitol Int. 2006;55(4):249-60.
Ashrafi K, Valero MA, Peixoto RV, Artigas P, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;31:95-109.
Mezo M, González-Warleta M, Castro-Hermida JA, Manga-González MY, Peixoto R, Mas-Coma S, Valero MA. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain). Vet Parasitol. 2013;198(3-4):274-83.
Prestwood AK, Kellogg FE, Pursglove SR, Hayes FA. Helminth parasitisms among intermingling insular populations of white-tailed deer, feral cattle, and feral swine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1975;166(8):787-9.
Thompson H, Irvine RM, Philbey AW. Fasciola hepatica infection in wild boar in the UK. Vet Rec. 2009;165(23):697-8.
Eslami A, Farsad-Hamdi S. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran. J Wildl Dis. 1992;28(2):316-8.
Peng M, Ichinomiya M, Ohtori M, Ichikawa M, Shibahara T, Itagaki T. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, and aspermic Fasciola sp. in China based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Parasitol Res. 2009;105(3):809-15.
Shafiei R, Sarkari B, Moshfe A. A consistent PCR-RFLP assay based on ITS-2 ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Fasciola species. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013;16(12):1266-9.
Shafiei R, Sarkari B, Sadjjadi SM, Mowlavi GR, Moshfe A. Molecular and morphological characterization of Fasciola spp. isolated from different host species in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Vet Med Int. 2014;2014:405740.
Sarkari B, Mansouri M, Khabisi SA, Mowlavi G. Molecular characterization and seroprevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in south-western Iran. Ann Parasitol. 2015;61(4):269-73.
Mansouri M, Sarkari B, Mowlavi GR. Helminth parasites of wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2016;11(3):377-382.
Sarkari B, Mansouri M, Najjari M, Derakhshanfar A, Mowlavi G. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: the most common helminthic infection of wild boars in southwestern Iran. J Parasit Dis. 2016;40(4):1563-1566.
Barutzki D, Schoierer R, Gothe R. Helminth infections in wild boars kept in enclosures in southern Germany: severity of infections and fecal intensity. Tierarztl Prax. 1991;19(6):644-8.
Yaghoobi K, Sarkari B, Mansouri M, Motazedian MH. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran. Vet World. 2016; 9(10):1047-1050.
Valero MA, Mas-Coma S. Comparative infectivity of Fasciola hepatica metacercariae from isolates of the main and secondary reservoir animal host species in the Bolivian Altiplano high human endemic region. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2000;47(1):17-22.
Valero MA, Panova M, Pérez-Crespo I, Khoubbane M, Mas-Coma S. Correlation between egg-shedding and uterus development in Fasciola hepatica human and animal isolates: applied implications. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183(1-2):79-86.
Boes J, Willingham AL 3rd, Fuhui S et al. Prevalence and distribution of pig helminths in the Dongting Lake Region (Hunan Province) of the People's Republic of China. J Helminthol. 2000;74(1):45-52.
Capucchio MT, Catalano D, Di Marco V et al. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159(1):37-42.
Shimalov VV, Shimalov VT. Findings of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 in wild animals in Belorussian Polesie. Parasitol Res. 2000;86(6):527.
Bruno de Sousa C, Madeira de Carvalho L, Fazendeiro I, Castro Rego F, Afonso-Roque M. Contribution for the knowledge of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) helmintic fauna in Tapada Nacional de Mafra, an enclosured hunting area. Rev Ibérica Parasitol. 2004;64:3-7.
Valero MA, Darce NA, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Relationships between host species and morphometric patterns in Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs from the northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic region. Vet Parasitol. 2001;102(1-2):85-100.