Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2018. 13(1):137-144.

A Preliminary Survey on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Domestic Ducks in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran
Sara LARKI, Alireza ALBORZI, Rahil CHEGINI, Rezvan AMIRI

Abstract


Background: Despite ducks being birds resistant to infection, the favorable habitat of ducks such as subtropical climate or stagnant water is also a perfect place for survival of the parasites.

Methods: This study was conducted from Dec 2014 to Apr 2015 to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic ducks in Ahvaz and environs, southwest of Iran. Overall, 41 fresh fecal samples were collected and prepared using formol-ether concentration, modified Ziehl-Neelsen, sheather`s floatation and zinc sulfate sedimentation methods. Light microscopic morphometry was used for identification of helminth eggs and oocysts.

Results: 60.97% of ducks were infected with three different nematodes and/or four protozoan parasites. The identified nematodes were Capillaria sp., (50%) Subulura spp. (16.66%) and Echinuria spp. (33.33%). The protozoan oocystes were Cryptosporidium spp. (50%) and coccidian species (%58.33) and included Wenionella philiplevinei, Tyzerria spp. and Isospora. mandari. Mixed infection with two or more parasites was common. Twenty (80%) had single, four (16%) double and one (4%) triple infection.

Conclusion: This is the first report of coccidian infection in domestic ducks of Iran. Further studies will be necessary on epidemiology and pathogenicity of the parasitic infections in ducks of this area.


Keywords


Gastrointestinal; Parasites; Ducks; Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


Farjana T, Islam KR, Mondal MMH. Population density of helminths in ducks: effects of host`s age, sex, breed and sea-son. Bangl J Vet Med. 2008; 6(1):45-51.

Eshetu Y, Mulualem E, Ibrahim H, Ber-hanu A, Aberra K. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chick-ens in four rural districts of Amhara re-gion, Ethiopia. Rev Sci tech. 2001; 20(3):791-6.

Adejinmi JO, Oke M. Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in Ibadan southwestern Nige-ria. Asian Journal of Poultry Science. 2011; 5(1):46-50.

Hai MA, Mahiuddin M, Howlider MAR, Yeasmin T. Pattern and problem of poul-try consumption by the rural and urban families of Fulbaria Upazila. J Bangladesh Afric Univ. 2008; 6:307-13.

Bhuiyan MM, Khan MH, Khan MAH, Das BC, Lucky NS, Uddin MB. A study on the comparative performance of differ-ent breeds of broiler ducks under farmer’s condition at farming system research and development (FSRD) site, Sylhet, Bangla-desh. Int J Poult Sci. 2005; 4(8):596–9.

Pingel H. Waterfowl production for food security. Lohmann Inf. 2011; 46(2):32–42.

Meulen SJVD, Dikken GD. Duck keeping in the tropics. In: Overage A. editor. Basic facts about duck keeping. Netherlands: Digigrafi, Wageningen; 2004. P. 6-7.

Rosati A, Tewolde A, Mosconi C. Animal production and animal science worldwide 2006: WAAP book of the year. Nether-lands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2007.

Hafez MH. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens. Pak Vet J. 2011; 31(3):175-84.

Puttalakshmamma GC, Ananda KJ, Prathiush PR, Mamatha GS, Suguna R. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of poultry in and around Banglore. Vet World. 2008; 1(7):201-2.

Chesbrough M. Medical Laboratory Man-ual for Tropical Countries Volume I. But-ter worth and Company Publisher; 1987. P. 208 –12.

Henriksen SA, Pohlenz JF. Staining of Cryptosporidia by a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Acta Vet Scand. 1981; 22(3-4):594-6.

Soulsby EJL. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th Edition, London: Bailler, Tindall; 1982. P. 166-342.

Zajac AM, Conboy GA. Veterinary clinical parasitology, 8th ed. Blackwell. USA: Iowa State University Press (Verlag); 2012. P. 140-55.

Adams KM, Paul J, Zaman V. Medical and Veterinary Protozology. Churchill Living-ston, Edinburgh: London; 1979. P. 32-49.

Gajadhaar A, Wobeser G, Stockdale PHG. Coccidia of domestic and wild waterfowl (Anseriformes). Can J Zool. 1983; 61:1-24.

Eslami A, Azar NF. A survey of the hel-minth infestation of domestic ducks in Iran. Journal of the Veterinary Faculty, University of Tehran. 1985; 40(2/4):45-53.

Youssefi MR, Hosseini SH, Tabarestani AHA, Ardeshir HA, Jafarzade F, Rahimi MT. Gastrointestinal helminths of green-winged teal (Anas crecca) from North Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(1):143-7.

Mohammad MK. The parasitic fauna of the Ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca (Gü-ldenstädt, 1770) collected in central Iraq. Int J Adv Res Biol Sci. 2015; 2(3):62–5.

Shemshadi B, Ranjbar-bahadori S, Delfan-abazari M. Prevalence and intensity of par-asitic infection in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchas) in Gilan Province, Northern Iran. Comp Clin Pathol. 2016; 1–3.

Aboulaila M, El-Bahy N, Hilali M, Yoko-yama N, Igarashi I. Prevalence of the en-teric parasites of ducks from Behera gov-ernorate, Egypt. J Protozool Res. 2011; 21(2):36-44.

Al-Labban NQM, Dawood KA, Jassem GA. New parasites of local duck recorded in Iraq with histopathological study. QJVMS. 2013; 12(1):152-61.

Muhairwa AP, Msoffe PL, Ramadhani S, Mollel EL, Mtambo MMA, Kassuku AA. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range ducks in morogoro municipali-ty, Tanzania. Livest Res Rural Dev. 2007; 19(4):1-5.

Farias JD, Canaris AG. Gastrointestinal helminths of the Mexican duck, Anas platyrhynchos diazi Ridgway, from north central Mexico and Southwestern United States. J Wildlife Dis. 1986; 22(1):51-4.

Kinsella JM, Forrester DJ. Helminths of the Florida Duck, Anas platyrhynchos fulvigula. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash. 1972; 39(2):173-6.

Hoque MA, Hassan MM, Haque E et al. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in domestic and wild birds in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet, Bangladesh. Prev Vet Med. 2014; 117(1):305-12.

McDougald LR, Coccidiosis. In: Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE editors. Dis-ease of Poultry. USA: Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa; 2003. P. 974-91.

You MJ. Suppression of Eimeria tenella Sporulation by Disinfectants. Korean J Parasitol. 2014; 52(4): 435–8.

Shemshadi B, Ranjbar-Bahadori S, Faghi-hzadeh-Gorji S. Occurrence of parasitic protozoa in wild waterfowl in southern coastal Caspian Sea lagoons. Iran J Vet Med. 2014; 8(4):261-7.

Kuhn RC, Rock CM, Oshima, KH. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Wild Ducks along the Rio Grande River Valley in Southern New Mexico. Appl En-viron Microbiol. 2002; 68(1):161–5.

Bomfim TCB, Gomes RS, Huber F, Cou-to MCM. The importance of poultry in environmental dissemination of Cryptospor-idium spp. Open Vet Sci J. 2013; 7(1):12-7.

Richter D, Wiegand-Tripp G, Burkhardt E, Kaleta EF. Natural infections by Cryp-tosporidium sp. in farm-raised ducks and geese. Avian Pathol. 1994; 23(2):277-86.

Wu HL. Prevalence of Wenyonella philiplevinei infection in Linwu ducks in Linwu county, subtropical China. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015; 1-4.

Cheng JL, Li GQ, Xu QM, Yue CY, Gao ZY, Zhu HB, Liu X. PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of partial 18S rDNA from Wenyonella philiplevinei. Chin Anim Husb Vet Med. 2010; 37(6):67-70.

Trees AJ. Parasitic diseases. In: Jordan FTW editor. Poultry diseases (3rd ed). London: Baillière Tindall; 1990. P. 226-53.

Chauve CM, Reynaud MC, Gounel JM. Isospora sp from ducks. Infectivity for the goose, four anatids and the domestic fowl. Vet Res. 1993; 24 (5):430-3.

Grafner G, Graubmann HD, Betke P. Dunndarm Kokzidiose bei Hausenten verursacht durch eine neue Kokzidienart, Eimeria danailovi sp. Monatsh Veterinarmed. 1965; 20:141-143.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.