Phylogenetic Analysis of C Type Lectin from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae and Comparison with the C Type Lectin Fam-ily in the Immune System of Mouse and Human
AbstractBackground: C type lectin (CTL) family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host.Methods: The female T. canis was retrieved from the 2-6 months puppies (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 2015). To collect T. canis eggs, the worms were cultured for 5 d until they were embryonated. The hatching process was accelerated for collecting the stage 2 larvae, and the larvae were cultured for a week. A cDNA library was made from the total mRNA of T. canis infective larvae. The PCR amplification for C type lectin gene was performed and the amino acids were analyzed using the alignment method and the construction of phylogenetic tree.Results: The suspension sample maintained at 30 ºC for four weeks could embryonate 90%-100% of eggs. T. canis CTL gene was 657 bp in length and encoded a protein with 219 amino acids. The CTL of species of Strongylida order were closely placed in the tree, whereas the members of Ascaridida orders were located in a separate branch. High levels of similarity (36%-44%) and conservation of C type lectin from T. canis with mouse and human C type lectins. Its C type lectin showed a higher similarity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), macrophage lectin, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), MINCLE receptor of mouse and human.Conclusion: Analysis of CRD domain of C type lectin protein could make a better understanding of their role in the interaction of nematode parasite with their hosts.
Holland CV, Smith HV. Toxocara: The En-igmatic Parasite. CABI Publishing, Walling-ford. 2006; pp. 302.
Loukas A, Doedens A, Hintz M, Maizels RM. Identification of a new C-type lectin, TES-70, secreted by infective larvae of Toxocara canis, which binds to host ligands. Parasitology. 2000; 121 Pt 5:545-54.
Drickamer K. C-type lectin-like domains. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1999;9(5):585-90.
Weis WI, Taylor ME, Drickamer K. The C-type lectin superfamily in the immune system. Immunol Rev. 1998;163:19-34.
Cummings RD, McEver RP. C-type Lec-tins. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD (Eds), Essentials of Glycobiology. second ed. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2009; Chapter 31, 465–480.
Yamaguchi Y. Lecticans: organizers of the brain extracellular matrix. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000; 57(2):276-89.
Holmskov UL. Collectins and collectin receptors in innate immunity. APMIS Suppl. 2000, 100:1-59.
van de Wetering JK, van Golde LM, Batenburg JJ. Collectins: players of the in-nate immune system. Eur J Biochem. 2004; 271(7):1229-49.
Kijimoto-Ochiai S. CD23 (the low-affinity IgE receptor) as a C-type lectin: a mul-tidomain and multifunctional molecule. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002; 59(4):648-64.
Loukas A, Maizels RM. Helminth C-type lectins and host–parasite interactions. Par-asitol Today. 2000; 16(8):333-9.
Loukas A, Mullin NP, Tetteh KK et al. A novel C-type lectin secreted by a tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode. Curr Biol. 199;9(15):825-8.
Mallo GV, Kurz CL, Couillault C, Pujol N, Granjeaud S, Kohara Y, Ewbank JJ. In-ducible antibacterial defense system in C. elegans. Curr Biol. 2002; 12(14):1209-14.
Soga K, Yamauchi J, Kawai Y et al. Altera-tion of the expression profiles of acidic mucin, sialytransferase, and sulfotransfer-ases in the intestinal epithelium of rats in-fected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Parasitol Res. 2008;103(6):1427-34.
Brown AC, Harrison LM, Kapulkin W et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin from Ancylostoma ceylanicum: evidence for a role in hookworm reproductive physiology. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;151(2):141-7.
Ponce-Macotela M, Peralta-Abarca GE, Martínez-Gordillo MN. Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic parasites: prevalence in dogs from the southern part of Mexico City. Vet Parasitol. 2005;131(1-2):1-4.
Page AP, Richards DT, Lewis JW, Omar HM, Maizels RM. Comparison of isolates and species of Toxocara and Toxascaris by biosynthetic labelling of somatic and ES proteins from infective larvae. Parasitology. 1991;103 Pt 3:451-64.
Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: Mo¬lecular Evolu-tionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30(12):2725-9.
Pearson WR. An Introduction to Sequence Similarity (“Homology”) Searching. Curr Protoc Bioinformatics. 2013. Chapter 3:Unit3.1. doi: 10.1002/0471250953.bi0301s42.
Schulenburg H, Hoeppner MP, Weiner J 3rd, Bornberg-Bauer E. Specificity of the innate immune system and diversity of C-type lectin domain (CTLD) proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Immunobi-ology. . 2008; 213(3-4):237-50.
Yoshida A, Nagayasu E, Horii Y, Maruyama H. A novel C-type lectin identi-fied by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum. Parasitol Res. 2012;110(4):1583-6.
Ganji S, Jenkins JN, Wubben MJ. Molecu-lar characterization of the reniform nema-tode C-type lectin gene family reveals a likely role in mitigating environmental stresses during plant parasitism. Gene. 2014; 537(2):269-78.
Kong P, Wang L, Zhang H, Song X, Zhou Z, Yang J, Qiu L, Wang L, Song L. A novel C-type lectin from bay scallop Ar-gopecten irradians (AiCTL-7) agglutinating fungi with mannose specificity. Fish Shell-fish Immunol. 2011;30(3):836-44.