Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

  • F Arabkhazaeli Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran AND Engineering Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran
  • S Nabian Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
  • M Modirsaneii Department of Animal and Poultry Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
  • B Mansoori Department of Animal and Poultry Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
  • S Rahbari Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Eimeria, Poultry coccidiosis, Iran

Abstract

Background: Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsi­ble for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characteriza­tion is important for epizootiological studies.Methods: Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poul­try houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broi­ler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were rec­orded and analyzed by the Duncan's test.Results: In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographi­cal regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates.Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates.

References

Allen PC, Fetterer RH. Recent advances in biology and immunobiology of Eimeria species and in diagnosis and control of infection with these coccidian parasites of poultry. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15(1): 58-65.

Yadav A, Gupta SK. Study of resistance against some ionophores in Eimeria tenella field isolates. Vet Parasitol. 2001; 102: 69-75.

Pirali-kheirabadi Kh, Zamani-Moghadam A, Abdi F, Bahonar AR. The effect of administration of anti-coccidial drugs on oocysts shedding and performance in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chicken. Int J Vet Res. 2008; ( 2,1): 67-73.

Guo FC, Suo X, Zhang GZ, Shen JZ. Efficacy of decoquinate against drug sensitive laboratory strains of Eimeria tenella and field isolates of Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in China. Vet Parasitol. 2001; 147: 239-245.

Chapman HD. Biochemical, genetic and applied aspects of drug resistance in Eimeria parasites of the fowl. Avian Pathol. 1997; 26: 221-244.

De Pablos LM, dos Sontos MF, Montero E, Garcia-Garnados A, Parra A,Osuna A. Anticoccidial activity of maslinic acid against infection with Eimeria tenella in chickens. Parasitol Res. 2010; 107: 601-604.

Yim D, Kang SS, Kim DW, Kim SH, Lillehoj HS, Min W. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens. Exp Parasitol. 2010; doi: 10, 1016/j.exppara,2010,080010.

Barriga OO. A review on vaccination against protozoa and arthropoda of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol. 1994; 55: 29-55.

Kawahara F, Taira K, Nagai S, Onaga H, Onuma M, Nunoya T. Detection of five avian Eimeria species by speciesspecific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Avian Dis. 2008; 52: 652-656.

McDougald LR, Da Silva JM, Solis J, Braga M. A survey of sensitivity to anticoccidial drugs in 60 isolates of coccidian from broiler chickens in Brazil and Argentina. Avian Dis. 1986; 31 (2): 287-292.

Holdsworth PA, Conway DP, McKenzie ME, Dayton AD, Chapman HD, Mathis GF, Skinner JT, Mundt HC, Williams RB. World association for advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs in chickens and turkeys. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 121: 189-212.

Conway DP, McKenzie ME. Poultry coccidiosis diagnosis and testing procedures, 3rd ed. Iowa: Blackwell publishing; 2007.

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth Revised ed. Washington DC. National Academy Press: 1994.

Daugschies A, Gässlein U, Rommel M. Comparative efficacy of anticoccidials under the conditions of commercial broiler production and in battery trials. Vet Parasitol. 1998; 76: 163-171.

McDougald LR. Coccidiosis. In: Saif M, editor. Diseases of Poultry. Ames: Iowa State Press; 2003. P. 974-991.

Hamidinejat H, Seifiabad Shapouri MR, Mayahi M, Pourmehdi Borujeni M. Characterization of Eimeria species in commercial broilers by PCR based on ITS1 region of rDNA. Iranian J Parasitol. 2010; 5(4): 48-54.

Nematollahi A, Moghaddam Gh, Niyazpour F. Prevalence of Eimeria sp. among broiler chicks in Tabriz. Res J Poult Sci. 2008; 2(3): 72-74.

Razmi GR, Kalideri GA. Prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis in broilerchicken farms in the municipality of Mashhad, Khorasan, Iran. Prev Vet Med. 2000; 44: 247-253.

Etuk EB, Okoli IC, Uko MU. Prevalence and management issues associated with poultry coccidiosis in Abak agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Int J Poult Sci. 2004; 3(2): 135-139.

Williams RB. A compartmentalized model for the estimation of the cost of coccidiosis to the world’s chicken production industry. Int J Parasitol. 1999; 29: 1209-1229.

ITPnews. Price chart. In: official website of ITPNews accessed on January 9, 2011: http://itpnews.com/fa/localprices/ view/42/18-10-1389.

Fayer R. Epidemiology of protozoan infections: the coccidian, Vet Parasitol. 1980; 6: 75-103.

Oikawa H, Kawaguchi K. Survey on drug resistance of chicken coccidian collected from Japanese broiler farms in 1973. Japanese Vet Res. 1975; 37: 357-362.

Anwar MI, Akhtar M, Hussain I, Muhammad F, Haq AU. Effects of local gametocyte and Livacox vaccines on live body weight gain and lymphoid organs in chickens. Pakistan Vet J. 2008a; 28(3): 136-138.

Allen PC, Jenkins MC. Cross protection studies with Eimeria maxima strains. Parasitol Res. 2005; 97: 179-185.

Anwar IM, Akhtar M, Hussain I, Haq AU, Muhammad M, Hafeez MA, Mahmood MS, Bashir S. Field evaluation of Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes vaccine and its comparative efficacy with imported live vaccine, Livacox. Parasitol Res. 2008b; 104: 135-143.

Peek HW, Landman WJM. Higher incidence of Eimeria spp. field isolates sensitive for diclazuril and monensin associated with the use of live coccidiosis vaccination with ParacoxTM-5 in broiler farms. Avian Dis. 2006; 50: 434-439.

How to Cite
1.
Arabkhazaeli F, Nabian S, Modirsaneii M, Mansoori B, Rahbari S. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates. Iran J Parasitol. 6(4):23-32.
Section
Articles