Parasitic Helminths in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

  • Samira DODANGEH 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 2. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Davoud AZAMI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 2. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Ahmad DARYANI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Shirzad GHOLAMI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Mehdi Sharif
  • Iraj MOBEDI 3. Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Shahabeddin SARVI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Eissa SOLEYMANI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 2. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Mohammad Taghi RAHIMI 4. Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
  • Majid PIRESTANI 5. Dept. of Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
  • Shaban GOHARDEHI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 2. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Reza BASTANI 1. Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran 2. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
Keywords: Wild boar, Parasitic helminths, Prevalence, Iran

Abstract

Background: Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are distributed worldwide and found in many parts of Iran. Although S. scrofa is reservoirs for many parasites, there is little data on helminthic prevalence in them. We aimed to survey the status of helminthic infections in S. scrofa in the Mazandaran Province of northern Iran. Methods: Twenty-one wild boars were captured and examined for helminth infection during Dec 2012-Mar 2014. Adult worms such as Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were identified by helminth size and shape, and the arrangement of the proboscis hooks. The sedimentation and flotation techniques were used to detect parasite eggs and larvae in faecal samples. Muscle samples were also surveyed for Trichinella larvae by artificial digestion method. Results: Of the 21 samples, 13 (61.9%) were infected with one or more helminth species. Seven helminth types were identified in the alimentary track, comprising 5 nematodes, 1 trematode, and 1 acanthocephalan, with prevalence rates of Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (57.14%), Globocephalus spp. (33.33%), Trichuris suis (19.04), Gongylonema pulchrum (14.28%), Fasciola hepatica (14.28%), Dioctophyma renale (4.76%), and Ascaris suum (4.76%). Conclusion: Wild boars might be involved in transmitting zoonotic parasites to humans. The abundance of these animals near human habitation creates favorable conditions for infection. So the risk of parasitic helminth diseases increases in other animals and humans.

References

Eslami A, Farsad-Hamdi S. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran. J Wildl Dis. 1992;28(2): 316-318.

Mowlavi G, Massoud, Mobedi I, Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Gharagozlou M, Mas-Coma S. Very highly prevalent Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus infection of wild boar Sus scrofa in Khuzestan province, south-western Iran. Helminthologia. 2006;43(2):86-91.

Yaghoobi K, Sarkari B, Mansouri M, Motazedian MH. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran. Vet World. 2016;9(10):1047.

Anezaki T. Estimating age at death in Jomon Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) based on the timing of molar eruption in recent comparative samples. Mammal study. (2009);34(2):53-63.

Mehlhorn H, Düwel D, Raether W. Atlas de parasitolog´ıa veterinaria. Grass, Barcelona. 1992; p.436.

Ziomko I, Cencek T. Outline of laboratory diagnosis of farm animal parasitoses. Publisher National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy; 1995.

Thienpont D, Rochette F, Vanparijs O. Diagnosing helminthiasis by coprological examination. Published in Beerse by Janssen research foundation; 1986.

Garedaghi Y, Mojallal S, Ouzbandi A. Helminth Parasites of a hunted-wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Talesh City, North of Iran. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. 2014;3(3):247-250.

Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Mobedi I, Rezaian M, Massoud J, Mohebali M, Hooshyar H, Ashrafi K, Rokni M.B. Helminth parasites of the wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Luristan province, western Iran and their public health significance. J. Helminthol. 2003; 77:263–267

Boon A, Jayathangaraj M.G, Palanivelrajan M, Gomanthinayagam S, Raman M, Bino Sundar S.T.Prevalence of helminthic fauna in wild pigs in comparison with domestic pigs: A study in the adjoining areas of Mudumalai, Anamalai and Sathyamangalam tiger reserves, Tamil Nadu south India. J. Parasitol. Vector Biol. 2015; 7(3): 46-52

Nansen P, Roepstorff A. Parasitic helminths of the pig: factors influencing transmission and infection levels. Int. J. Parasitol. 1999;29:877-891.

Leng Y, Huang W, Liang P. Human infection with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Travassos, 1916 in Guangdong Province, with notes on its prevalence in China. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1983; 77(1):107-109.

Arbabi M, Doroodgar A, Hooshyar H, Asadi M, Mobedi I. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus in carnivores of Kashan region, Iran. In Third National Congress on Medical Parasitology, Sari, Iran. 2001.

Mobedi I, Arfaa F, Vedadi L. The possible role of dung-pusher beetles in the epidemiology of intestinal helminths. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 1971; 64(6):924-925.

Soulsby e. J. L. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Can Vet J. 1968; 10(8):223.

Pattison H, Thomas R, Smith W. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism in pigs. Vet Rec. 1980; 107(18): 415-418.

Holland C. Neglected infections-trichuriasis and strongyloidiasis. Impact of Helminth Infections on Human Nutrition. London: Taylor and Francis. 1987; 161-201.

Beer R. Experimental infection of man with pig whipworm. Br Med J. 1971; 2(5752):44.

Bleier T, Hetzel U, Bauer C, Behlert O, Burkhardt E. Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a vari (Lemur macaco variegata; Kehr 1792). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005; 36(2):342-345.

Mezo M, González-Warleta M, Castro-Hermida J. A, Manga-González M. Y, Peixoto R, Mas-Coma S, et al. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain). Vet parasitol. 2013; 198(3-4): 274-283.

Tiwari k. P, Chikweto A, Belot G, Vanpee G, Deallie C, Stratton G, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in pigs in Grenada, West Indies. W Indian Vet J. 2009; 9(1):22-27.

Nsoso S, Mosala K, Ndebele R, Ramabu S. The prevalence of internal and external parasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in Southeast District, Botswana. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2000; 67(3):217-220.

Kakihara D, Yoshimitsu K, Ishigami K, Irie H, Aibe H, Tajima T, et al. Liver lesions of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum infection. Abdom imaging. 2004; 29(5):598-602.

Published
2018-09-23
How to Cite
1.
DODANGEH S, AZAMI D, DARYANI A, GHOLAMI S, Sharif M, MOBEDI I, SARVI S, SOLEYMANI E, RAHIMI MT, PIRESTANI M, GOHARDEHI S, BASTANI R. Parasitic Helminths in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. IJPA. 13(3):416-22.
Section
Original Article(s)