Pathogenic Acanthamoeba T4 Genotype Isolated from Mucosal Tissue of a Patient with HIV Infection: A Case Report
AbstractOpportunistic infections due to free-living amoebae such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE), cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and disseminated infections could be the causative agent of mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we report the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba belonging to the T4 genotype isolated from nasal and oral swabs of a 15 -yr-old man with HIV infection. HIV was confirmed using ELISA kit and RT-PCR assay. The isolated strain showed pathogenic potential using thermo and osmotolerance assays. This patient might be vulnerable to develop GAE or disseminated infections and depending on the immunologic status of the patient, this could be a health threat. Monitoring of such patients, appropriate diagnostic procedures and improved-HIV related care can alter the outcome of such infections.
Mergeryan H. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba in the human environment. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13 Suppl 5:S390-1.
Lasjerdi Z, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Shahabi S, Tahvildar Biderouni F, Taghipour N, Eftekhar M, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hospital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran. Parasitol Res. 2011; 109(3):575–580.
Cerva L. Experimental infection of laboratory animals by the pathogenic Naegleria gruberi strain Vítek. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1971;18(2):171-6.
Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z, Lorenzo-Morales J. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran. Microbiol Insights. 2015 ; 9;8(Suppl 1):1-6.
Rivera F, Lares F, Ramirez E, Bonilla P, Rodriguez S, Labastida A, Ortiz R, Hernandez D. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated during an atmospheric survey in Mexico City. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13 Suppl 5:S388-9.
Cabello-Vílchez AM, Martín-Navarro CM, López-Arencibia et al. Genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains isolated from nasal swabs of healthy individuals in Peru. Acta Trop. 2013; 130:7–10.
Rivera F, Rosas I, Castillo M et al. Pathogenic and free-living protozoa cultured from the nasopharyngeal and oral regions of dental patients. II. Environ Res. 1986;39(2):364-71.
Memari F, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Seyyed Tabaei SJ, Lasjerdi Z. Occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes in nasal swabs of cancer patients in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2015;114(5):1907-12.
Kim SY, Syms MJ, Holtel MR, Nauschuetz KK. Acanthamoeba sinusitis with subsequent dissemination in an AIDS patient. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000;79(3):168,171-4.
Khan NA . Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev.2006; 30:564–595.
Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G. Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(2):273-307.
Lorenzo-Morales J, Khan NA, Walochnik J. An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. Parasite. 2015;22:10.
Khan NA. Acanthamoeba, biology and pathogenesis. Caister Academic, Great Britani. 1st edn; 2009.
Pietrucha-Dilanchian P, Chan JC, Castellano-Sanchez A et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection in a patient with advanced HIV infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2011; 50(3), 1128-1131.
Sison JP, Kemper CA, Loveless M et al. Disseminated Acanthamoeba infection in patients with AIDS: case reports and review. Clin Infect Dis.1995; 20:1207-1216.
Heath KV, Frank O, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy MV, Hogg RS. Human virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in industrialized nations, 1987–1991. Int J Epidemi-ol.1998; 19 27: 685–690.
Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Rezaie S et al. Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical and environmental specimens in Iran. Exp Parasitol. 2009; 121:242–245.
Schroeder JM, Booton GC, Hay J et al. Use of subgenic 18S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing for genus and genotype identification of Acanthamoebae from humans with keratitis and from sewage sludge. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39(5):1903–11.
Hajialilo E, Niyyati M, Solaymani M, Rezaeian M. Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae Isolated From Contact Lenses of Keratitis Patients. Iran J Parasitol. 2015; 10(4):541-546.
Mirjalali H, Niyyati M, Abedkhojasteh H, Babaei Z, Sharifdini M, Rezaeian M. Pathogenic assays of Acanthamoeba belonging to the T4 genotype. Iran J Parasitol. 2013;8(4):530-535.
Behniafar H, Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z. Molecular Characterization of Pathogenic Acanthamoeba Isolated from Drinking and Recreational water in East Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran. Env Health Insights. 2015; 29;9:7-12.
MacLean RC, Hafez N, Tripathi S, Childress CG, Ghatak NR, Marciano-Cabral F. Identification of Acanthamoeba sp. in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue from an HIV+ individual by PCR. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:289–294.
Shirwadkar CG, Samant R, Sankhe M, Deshpande R, Yagi S, Schuster FL, Sriram R, Visvesvara GS. Acanthamoeba encephalitis in patient with systemic lupus, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):984-6.
Thamtam VK, Uppin MS, Pyal A, Kaul S, Rani JY, Sundaram C. Fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in a newly diagnosed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurol India. 2016; 64(1):101-4.
Dowell JD, Mukherjee S, Raghavan P, Rehm PK. AIDS Presenting as Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: PET and MR Imaging correlation. J Neuroimaging. 2015;25(6):1047-9.
Velho V, Sharma GK, Palande DA. Cerebrospinal Acanthamebic granulomas. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:572-574.