Molecular and Serological Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Stray Cats in Shiraz, South-central, Iran

  • Qasem ASGARI 1. Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Iraj MOHAMMADPOUR 1. Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran 2. Dept. of Medical Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Razieh PIRZAD 2. Dept. of Medical Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Mohsen KALANTARI 3. Research Center for Health Sciences, Mamasani Higher Education Complex for Health, Shiraz University of Medi-cal Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Mohammad Hossein MOTAZEDIAN 2. Dept. of Medical Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Shahrbanou NADERI 2. Dept. of Medical Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Stray cats, MAT, Nested-PCR, Iran

Abstract

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonotic disease that causes critical medical complications in neonates and immunocompromised persons. Infection rates in cats, specifically stray cats, are believed to be the best sentry of the level of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. Therefore, in this study, we surveyed T. gondii infection in stray cats of Shiraz, one of the metropolises of Iran. Methods: The appearance of antibodies and DNA of T. gondii in samples from 145 stray cats was determined in order to appraise the prevalence of T. gondii infection, by MAT and Nested-PCR. Results: The rate of T. gondii infection in the cats was 69% by PCR and 82.8% by MAT. Besides, the highest rate of infection was discerned in diaphragm (37.9%) and intercostal muscle (34.5%), while the lowest rate was related to ileum (6.9%). Moreover, the similarity between MAT with titers 1:20, 1:40 and PCR were 79.2% and 86.2%, respectively (P=0.02 and P=0.0001). Conclusion: Nested-PCR and MAT are valuable techniques for molecular and serological detection of T. gondii. The prevalence of T. gondii infection in stray cats in Shiraz is high.

Author Biography

Qasem ASGARI, 1. Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology

References

Lehmann T, Marcet PL, Graham DH, Dahl ER, Dubey JP. Globalization and the population structure of Toxoplasma gondii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103: 11423–11428.

Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004; 363: 1965-1976.

Uttah E, Ogban E, Okonofua C. Toxoplasmosis: A global infection, so widespread, so neglected. Int J Sci Res Publication. 2013; 3: 1-6.

Pereira-Chioccola VL, Vidal JE, Su C. Toxoplasma gondii infection and cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. Future Microbiol. 2009; 4: 1363-1379.

Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Toxoplasma gondii and Schizophrenia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003; 9: 1375-1380.

Akyol A, Bicerol B, Ertug S, Ertabaklar H, Kiylioglu N. Epilepsy and seropositivity rates of Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii. Seizure. 2007; 16: 233-237.

Henriquez SA, Brett R, Alexander J, Pratt J, Roberts CW. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Toxoplasma gondii Infection. NeuroImmunoModulation. 2009; 16: 122-133.

Fabiani S, Pinto B, Bruschi F. Toxoplasmosis and neuropsychiatric diseases: can serological studies establish a clear relationship? Neurol Sci. 2013; 34: 417-425.

Hill D, Dubey JP. Toxoplasma gondii: transmission, diagnosis and prevention. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2002; 8: 634–640.

Elmore SA, Jones JL, Conrad PA, Patton S, Lindsay DS, Dubey JP. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention. Trends Parasitol. 2010; 26: 190-196.

Dubey JP. The History of Toxoplasma gondii-The First 100 Years. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008; 55: 467-475.

Dubey JP, Jones JL. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. Int J Parasitol. 2008; 38: 1257–1278.

Dubey JP. History of the discovery of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol. 2009; 39: 877–882.

Wang Q, Jiang W, Chen YJ, Liu CY, Shi JL, Li XT. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, circulating antigens and DNA in stray cats in Shanghai, China. Parasites Vectors. 2012; 5: 190.

Sarkari B, Asgari Q, Bagherian N, Esfahani SA, Kalantari M, Mohammadpour I, Ashrafmansori M, Amerinia M, Sarvestani FS. Molecular and Serological Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Reared Turkeys in Fars Province, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014; 7: e11598.

Jones CD, Okhravi N, Adamson P, Tasker S, Lightman S. Comparison of PCR detection methods for B1, P30, and 18S rDNA genes of Toxoplasma gondii in aqueous humor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000; 41: 634-644.

Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. Mol Biol Evol. 2016; 33: 1870-1874.

Vollaire MR, Radecki SV, Lappin MR. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in clinically ill cats in the United States. Am J Vet Res. 2005; 66: 874-877.

Dubey JP, Saville WJ, Stanek JF, Reed SM. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from rural Ohio. J Parasitol. 2002; 88: 802-803.

Hooshyar H, Rostamkhani P, Talari S, Arbabi M. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Stray Cats. Iranian J Parasitol. 2007; 2: 18-22.

Sharif M, Daryani A, Barzegar G, Nasrolahei M, Ziapour S. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray cats in Sari, northern Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009; 41: 183-187.

Akhtardanesh B, Ziaali N, Sharifi H, Rezaei S. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray and household cats in Kerman-Iran: seroprevalence and correlation with clinical and laboratory findings. Res Vet Sci. 2010; 89: 306-310.

Haddadzadeh HR, Khazraiinia P, Aslani M, Rezaeian M, Jamshidi S, Taheri M, Bahonar A. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray and household cats in Tehran. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 138: 211-221.

Lopes AP, Cardoso L, Rodrigues M. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2008; 155: 184-189.

Miro G, Montoya A, Jimenez S, Frisuelos C, Mateo M, Fuentes I. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and intestinal parasites in stray, farm and household cats in Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 126: 249-255.

Asgari Q, Sarnevesht J, Kalantari M, Sadat SJ, Motazedian MH, Sarkari B. Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, southern Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011; 43: 389-392.

Asgari Q, Fekri M, Monabati A, Kalantari M, Mohammadpour I, Motazedian MH, Sarkari B. Molecular Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Human Spontaneous Aborted Fetuses in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Iranian J Publ Health. 2013; 42: 620-625.

Dubey JP, Zhu XQ, Sundar N, Zhang H, Kwok OCH, Su C. Genetic and biologic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates of cats from China. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 145: 352–356.

Mancianti F, Nardoni S, Ariti G, Parlanti D, Giuliani G, Papini RA. Cross-sectional survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in colony cats from urban Florence (Italy). J Feline Med Surg. 2010; 12: 351-354.

Qian W, Wang H, Su C, Shan D, Cui X, Yang N, Lv C, Liu Q. Isolation and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains from stray cats revealed a single genotype in Beijing, China. Vet Parasitol. 2012; 187: 408-413.

Schares G, Vrhovec MG, Pantchev N, Herrmann DC, Conraths FJ. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi oocysts in the feces of cats from Germany and other European countries. Vet Parasitol. 2008; 152: 34-45.

Dabritz HA, Miller MA, Atwill ER, Gardner IA, Leutenegger CM, Melli AC, Conrad PA. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007; 231: 1676–1684.

Mosallanejad B, Avizeh R, Razi Jalali MH, Pourmehdi M. A study on seroprevalence and coproantigen detection of Toxoplasma gondii in companion cats in Ahvaz area, southwestern Iran. Iranian J Vet Res. 2011; 12: 139-144.

Khalafalla RE. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6: e20283.

Lee SE, Kim JY, Kim YA, Cho SH, Ahn HJ, Woo HM, Lee WJ, Nam HW. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Stray and Household Cats in Regions of Seoul, Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2010; 48: 267-270.

Lee SE, Kim NH, Chae HS, Cho SH, Nam HW, Lee WJ, Kim SH, Lee JH. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Feral Cats in Seoul, Korea. J Parasitol. 2011; 97: 153-155.

Kim HY, Kim YA, Kang S, Lee HS, Rhie HG, Ahn HJ, Nam HW, Lee SE. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Stray Cats of Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2008; 46: 199–201.

Nutter FB, Dubey JP, Levine JF, Breitschwerdt EB, Ford RB, Stoskopf MK. Seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004; 225: 1394-1398.

Published
2018-09-23
How to Cite
1.
ASGARI Q, MOHAMMADPOUR I, PIRZAD R, KALANTARI M, MOTAZEDIAN MH, NADERI S. Molecular and Serological Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Stray Cats in Shiraz, South-central, Iran. IJPA. 13(3):430-9.
Section
Original Article(s)